U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Biodivers Conserv (2016) 25:1879–1898


U.S. Government Work


We studied rooting damage during five-years of feral swine control at Avon Park Air Force Range, a significant botanical biodiversity hotspot in peninsular Florida with many globally imperiled plant species and communities. While control reduced swine abundance, remaining animals consistently rooted the 49 studied sites in both middle-dry season (MDS) and late-dry season (LDS) each year. At each study site, we measured rooting with sub-meter accuracy. Neither total nor proportional area rooted differed in either season, across study years, or among plant community types: herbaceous seepage slopes, wet pine savannas, wet grasslands. The proportion of sites with damage during MDS was at least 25 % less than pre-control baseline. During LDS, the proportion of sites with damage increased over years but remained below the initial 2 years’ MDS results. Fresh rooting frequency (rooting <1 >week-old) across sites dropped precipitously from baseline and remained low for MDS. Fresh rooting frequency among sites during LDS was lower than MDS for all but year two of the study. Canopied habitatwetlands, integrating swine control into other compatible land use practices, and improving swine control efficacy. While we measured damage amounts at each site very accurately, our approach of also considering frequency of rooting and frequency of fresh rooting across sites offers low-labor means to broadly assess swine damage and control efficacy at large geographic scales because in-field measurements of damage amounts are not needed.

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