U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (2017), pp 259–269.
doi 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.05.022


U.S. Government Work


The increase of global urbanization can have effects on wildlife species, including carnivores such as coyotes (Canis latrans). As coyotes continue to settle in more urban areas, reports of human-coyote conflicts, such as attacks on humans or pets, may also increase. Understanding environmental variables that might influence whether or not coyotes and human-coyote conflicts will occur in certain urban areas may assist wildlife officials in creating management plans for urban wildlife.We conducted a survey of 105 urban areas in the United States requesting information on the occurrence of coyotes and human-coyote conflicts. We analyzed the responses with data on human population size, geographic region, land cover, housing density, and precipitation. Larger urban areas were more likely to contain both coyotes and human-coyote conflicts, and were also more likely to have greater numbers of conflicts. Urban areas in the western regions with larger amounts of high-intensity development and less forested and agricultural areas were more likely to have conflicts. Most urban areas considered the management of conflicts to be of low priority and emphasized education of citizens rather than removal of individual coyotes. Our results may assist urban wildlife managers in understanding the geographic and demographic factors correlated with the occurrence of coyotes and human-coyote conflicts. Practices such as education campaigns and landscape design incorporating wildlife habitat modifications (e.g.,reducing dense cover) may reduce human-carnivore conflicts in urban ecosystems.

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