U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Wildlife Society Bulletin 41(2):256–263; 2017; DOI: 10.1002/wsb.775


U.S. government work.


Populations of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are increasing in many regions of the world, in particular the United States and Australia. Invasive wild pigs cause extensive damage to ecological resources and agriculture. Development and registration of a safe and humane toxic bait offers a practical and cost effective tool to control invasive species. Currently, no toxicants are approved for use on invasive wild pigs in the United States and those approved in Australia are under scrutiny because of concerns regarding humaneness and effects on nontarget species. We tested a newly formulated bait containing the microencapsulated active ingredient, sodium nitrite (HOGGONE®; Animal Control Technologies Australia P/L, Victoria, Australia), that is considered humane and safer for nontarget species because it does not bioaccumulate. We examined palatability, lethality, and stability of the bait (i.e., fresh compared to 8-monthold bait) on groups of captive invasive wild pigs. We found HOGGONE® was a preferred food item, averaging 475 g of toxic bait consumed per animal during the first night offered. Consumption of HOGGONE® resulted in 95% mortality (53 of 56) in the treatment groups across 2 treatment nights. Most mortalities (98%) occurred during the first night the toxic bait was offered. Camera evidence suggested that deaths occurred within 3 hr post-offering. The toxic bait was stable and effective up to 8 months post manufacture. Our results support current applications to register HOGGONE® for reducing damage from invasive wild pigs in the United States and Australia. Further research is required to evaluate HOGGONE® on free-ranging invasive wild pigs using bait stations that exclude nontarget species.

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