U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 146 (2017) 11–18.


© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (Leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (Columba livia) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered MC252 oil and food for either a single day or 4–5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. Where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidative stress and organ weigh changes. Double-crested cormorants, laughing gulls and western sandpipers all excreted oil within 30 min of dose, while pigeons regurgitated within less than one hour of dosing. There were species differences in the effectiveness of the dosing technique, with double-crested cormorants having the greatest number of responsive endpoints at the completion of the trial. Statistically significant changes in packed cell volume, white cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, uric acid, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione, spleen and liver weights were measured in double-crested cormorants. Homing pigeons had statistically significant changes in creatine phosphokinase, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione and Trolox equivalents. Laughing gulls exhibited statistically significant decreases in spleen and kidney weight, and no changes were observed in any measurement endpoints tested in western sandpipers.

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