U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


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Beard, K.H., S.A. Johnson, and A.B. Shields. 2018. Frogs (Coqui frogs, greenhouse frogs, Cuban tree frogs, and cane toads). pgs. 163-192. In: W.C. Pitt, J.C. Beasley, and G.W Witmer, editors. Ecology and Management of terrestrial vertebrate invasive species in the United States. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 403 pp.


U.S. government work.


Amphibians are perhaps most well known for their highly threatened status, which often masks appreciation for the great numbers of species that are widespread global invaders (Kraus 2009). Both purposeful and accidental introductions of amphibians have occurred worldwide. Motivations for purposeful amphibian introductions include their use as biocontrol agents and culinary ambitions (Storer 1925; Kraus 2009). However, there are an increasing number of amphibians that are being accidentally introduced and becoming widespread (Kraus 2009). These introductions are in some ways more disconcerting because they may be the most difficult to prevent in the future.

There are 19 nonnative amphibians that have become successfully established in 28 of the 50 U.S. states (Figure 9.1; Kraus 2009). The most successful non-native amphibian is the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), which has become established in 19 states outside of its native range on the eastern side of the United States, followed by the Cuban greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris), which has established itself in six states, and five frog species, including the Puerto Rican coqui (E. coqui), which are now established in three states outside of their native range (Figure 9.1; Kraus 2009). The state with the most nonnative frogs is California with eight species, followed by Hawaii with six, and Florida and Arizona with four (Table 9.1; Kraus 2009). Many nonnative amphibians in the United States, particularly in the western United States, are from other parts of the United States, namely, east of the Mississippi River. However, there are also many nonnative amphibians with tropical or subtropical origins that are primarily successful in tropical and subtropical states, such as Florida and Hawaii, and territories, such as Guam.

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