U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Emerging Topics in Ecotoxicology 5


© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

This document is a U.S. government work and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-64377-9_11


In the late 1940s, anticoagulant active ingredients were introduced into the global rodenticide market. They were rapidly favored over existing rodenticides, such as red squill, zinc phosphide, strychnine and inorganic compounds, because they were comparatively inexpensive and did not appear to have any unpalatable taste, odor or cause any immediate post-ingestive reaction that could lead to bait shyness in rodents (Wardrop and Keeling 2008). The number of products registered in the United States (US) under Section 3 of the Federal Fungicide, Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), which was passed in 1947 and was the first US law to require product registration, illustrates the rapid dominance of anticoagulants in the US rodenticide market (Fig. 11.1). It is striking that the number of anticoagulant-based rodenticide products (ARs) registered under FIFRA was more than two times greater than the other categories of rodenticide active ingredients 40 years after the enactment of FIFRA. The greatest number of rodenticide products registered in a single year under Section 3 of FIFRA (750) was in 1985, and ARs accounted for 547 (73%) of

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