U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

November 2003


2003. G. M. Linz, editor. Management of North American Blackbirds (Proceedings of a special symposium of the Wildlife Society 9th Annual Conference. Bismarck, North Dakota, September 27, 2002).


DRC-1339( 3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) is the only toxicant currently registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for lethal bird control. DRC-1339 was first registered in 1967 for starling control at feedlots It may currently be used to manage blackbirds, rock doves, crows, ravens, magpies, gulls and starlings for purposes of protecting human health and safety, agricultural crops and threatened or endangered species. A large body of toxicity information is available because of the nature of DRC-1339 uses and its 35-year history of use. Laboratory testing has resulted in estimates of median lethal dose (LD50) for 55 species of birds. Acute dietary toxicity testing has been conducted on 6 species of birds. Additionally, dietary testing has been conducted on 12 species by offering treated bait used in actual bird control projects. Four species have been tested for reproductive toxicity. This paper presents and discusses extant toxicity data available for blackbirds and various nontarget species of concern.