U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Journal of Environmental Management 219 (2018) 115-124


Copyright R.M. Engeman et al.

This document is a U.S. government work and is not subject to copyright in the United States.



After its inadvertent introduction to Guam, the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis, BTS) extirpated most of the island's native terrestrial vertebrates, presented a health hazard to small children, and had considerable economic ramifications. Management of BTS is aimed at a number of objectives, the foremost of which has been to deter its dispersal from Guam to other locations. Further objectives include reclaiming areas on Guam as snake-free for reintroduction of native wildlife, to protect small sensitive sites on Guam from BTS intrusion (e.g, power stations, bird nesting sites), to contain and capture stowaway BTS incoming to vulnerable destinations, and to control incipient populations in other areas beyond their native range. A number of control tools have been developed, and the efficacy of each control method depends on the situation to which it is applied. Integration of control methods provides the most efficacious results for all objectives. Here, we outline the different objectives for managing BTS, and the tools and methods available for BTS management. We complete the picture by describing which tools and methods are best suited to accomplish each management objective.

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