U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


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Schaeffer, J.W., J.C. Chandler, M. Davidson, S.L. Magzamen, A. Perez-Mendez, S.J. Reynolds, L.D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A.B. Franklin, S.A. Shriner, and B. Bisha. 2018. Detection of viruses from bioaerosols using anion exchange resin. Journal of Visualized Experiments 138:e58111. doi: 10.3791/58111


This protocol demonstrates a customized bioaerosol sampling method for viruses. In this system, anion exchange resin is coupled with liquid impingement-based air sampling devices for efficacious concentration of negatively-charged viruses from bioaerosols. Thus, the resin serves as an additional concentration step in the bioaerosol sampling workflow. Nucleic acid extraction of the viral particles is then performed directly from the anion exchange resin, with the resulting sample suitable for molecular analyses. Further, this protocol describes a custom-built bioaerosol chamber capable of generating virus-laden bioaerosols under a variety of environmental conditions and allowing for continuous monitoring of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol mass concentration. The main advantage of using this protocol is increased sensitivity of viral detection, as assessed via direct comparison to an unmodified conventional liquid impinger. Other advantages include the potential to concentrate diverse negatively-charged viruses, the low cost of anion exchange resin (~$0.14 per sample), and ease of use. Disadvantages include the inability of this protocol to assess infectivity of resin-adsorbed viral particles, and potentially the need for the optimization of the liquid sampling buffer used within the impinger.

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