U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Ecological Indicators 91 (2018) 92–104


© 2018 Elsevier Ltd.

This document is a U.S. government work and is not subject to copyright in the United States.



Concentrations of 26 trace elements including essential (Mg, Ca, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr and Mo) and toxic (As, Cd and Pb), were determined in the liver, kidney, brain, hair, muscle, and stomach contents of the small Indian mongooses inhabiting eight areas on three Hawaiian Islands, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. There were significant differences in concentrations of some metals among the habitats. Cadmium concentrations in mongooses from the macadamia nut orchards on Island of Hawaii were relatively higher than those in populations from other seven areas. Lead concentrations in mongooses from the Ukumehame firing range were significantly higher than those from other areas. Compared to data reported in mongooses from other countries, Pb concentrations in the brain were higher in the animals from Hawaiian islands, but almost similar levels were observed in the liver and kidney. Intriguingly, brain concentrations of Pb in three specimens from the Ukumehame firing range exceeded 3.79 μg g−1 WW, which was the mean cerebral Pb level in rats that caused some toxic symptoms after administration in the previous study. Furthermore, two fetuses exhibited higher brain Pb concentrations than each of their dams. These results prompted us to consider the potential exposure and health effects of Pb derived from firing range operations on the small Indian mongoose and other animal species including human.

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