U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

December 2003


Published by International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 52 (2003) 213-246.


The 2 X 2 contingency table is common analytical method for wildlife studies, but inappropriate analyses and inferences are not uncommon. Issues of concern are presented for selecting the appropriate test for analyzing these data sets. These include the choice of test relative to experimental or sampling design and breadth of intended inferences, the careful statement of hypotheses, and analyses with small sample sizes. Examples from the wildlife literature are used to reinforce the statistical concepts.