U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Document Type


Date of this Version



Root, J.J., and S.A. Shriner. 2020. Avian influenza A virus associations in wild, terrestrial mammals: a review of potential synanthropic vectors to poultry facilities. Viruses 12(12):1352.

doi: 10.3390/v12121352


US gov't work


The potential role of wild mammals in the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) at the farm-side level has gained increasing consideration over the past two decades. In some instances, select mammals may be more likely to visit riparian areas (both close and distant to farms) as well as poultry farms, as compared to traditional reservoir hosts, such as waterfowl. Of significance, many mammalian species can successfully replicate and shed multiple avian IAVs to high titers without prior virus adaptation and often can shed virus in greater quantities than synanthropic avian species. Within this review, we summarize and discuss the potential risks that synanthropic mammals could pose by trafficking IAVs to poultry operations based on current and historic literature.