U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



J World Aquacult Soc. 2021;52:41–56.

DOI: 10.1111/jwas.12728


U.S. gov't work


Substantial economic losses of farmed catfish to fish-eating birds such as the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, continue to be reported on U.S. catfish farms. An economic analysis was conducted of the on-farm effects of both the increased expenditures to scare fish-eating birds from catfish farms and of the value of the catfish that were consumed by cormorants. A survey was conducted of U.S. catfish farmers in the Delta region of Mississippi and Arkansas, to obtain farm-level data on expenditures to scare birds. Estimations of the lost revenue from catfish consumed by cormorants were developed from a concurrent study on cormorant distribution, abundance, and diet in the region. The economic effects of bird predation in terms of both fish consumption and management costs were evaluated across three farm sizes and nine catfish production practices. Catfish farmers spent on average $704/ha ± $394/ha to scare birds, making bird-scaring costs one of the top five costs of raising catfish. The greatest cost components of scaring birds were manpower (39% of all bird-scaring costs) and the variable and fixed costs of trucks used to scare birds (34% of all bird-scaring costs). Losses were greater on hybrid than channel catfish fingerling ponds. Industry-wide, the value of catfish losses averaged $47.2 million (range of $25.8–$65.4 million). Total direct economic effects (including both the increased costs to scare birds and the revenue lost from fish consumed by cormorants despite bird-scaring attempts) averaged $64.7 million (ranging from $33.5 to $92.6 million). Profitability improved by 4% to 23% across the farm size/production strategies analyzed upon removal of the economic effects from bird predation, with greater effects occurring on smaller-scale farms. One-third of the farm size and production scenarios analyzed changed from being unprofitable to showing a profit in the absence of such negative economic effects associated with bird depredation. Overall, the combined effects of increased farm expenditures to scare birds from farms and the value of the catfish lost to predation by cormorants caused substantial negative economic effects on catfish farms.