U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Mammalian Biology (2022) 102:279–290



U.S. government work


The wild pig (Sus scrofa) is a successful invasive species that has become well established outside of its native range in Eurasia. The invasive wild pig is the result of released or escaped domesticated livestock becoming feral, or Eurasian boar introduced for hunting purposes. The global spread of wild pigs has recently been exacerbated in some areas, such as the USA, by anthropogenically assisted dispersal. Once established in novel ecosystems, wild pigs have the potential to have significant negative impacts on the ecosystem, and the scientific literature is replete with examples. It is generally accepted that wild pigs negatively impact native fauna where they have become established, yet the degree to which they impact faunal communities has not been well described. This paper serves as a review of the information to date on the implications of wild pig invasions and impacts they have on terrestrial vertebrates in their invasive range. In addition, the review highlights our need for more research in this area, particularly regarding declining species.