U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Transbound Emerg Dis. 2022;1–12.

DOI: 10.1111/tbed.14576


U.S. government work


Animal disease surveillance is an important component of the national veterinary infrastructure to protect animal agriculture and facilitates identification of foreign animal disease (FAD) introduction. Once introduced, pathogens shared among domestic and wild animals are especially challenging to manage due to the complex ecology of spillover and spillback. Thus, early identification of FAD in wildlife is critical to minimize outbreak severity and potential impacts on animal agriculture as well as potential impacts on wildlife and biodiversity. As a result, national surveillance and monitoring programs that include wildlife are becoming increasingly common. Designing surveillance systems in wildlife or, more importantly, at the interface of wildlife and domestic animals, is especially challenging because of the frequent lack of ecological and epidemiological data for wildlife species and technical challenges associated with a lack of non-invasive methodologies. To meet the increasing need for targeted FAD surveillance and to address gaps in existing wildlife surveillance systems, we developed an adaptive risk-based targeted surveillance approach that accounts for risks in source and recipient host populations. The approach is flexible, accounts for changing disease risks through time, can be scaled from local to national extents and permits the inclusion of quantitative data or when information is limited to expert opinion. We apply this adaptive risk-based surveillance framework to prioritize areas for surveillance in wild pigs in the United States with the objective of early detection of three diseases: classical swine fever, African swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease. We discuss our surveillance framework, its application to wild pigs and discuss the utility of this framework for surveillance of other host species and diseases.