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ig game species, such as elk and deer, inflict the most widespread form of damage to forest resources. Elk may trample or pull seedlings without well-established root systems out of the ground. Browsing elk often splinter woody stems. During the spring, the stems may be stripped of bark below where they break the stem. Deer damage inflicted on seedlings is similar to elk damage. Woody stems are often splintered and the bark is stripped from twigs. New buds are generally clipped back to the previous year’s growth. Deer do not pull seedlings as frequently as elk and their damage rarely occurs above six feet.