U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service



Samantha J. Leivers http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3635-3863

Date of this Version



Wildlife Society Bulletin 2023;47:e1439.



This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, AND

U.S. government work


Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most pervasive invasive species in North America. Wild pigs pose a threat to crops, livestock, and the environment, but also provide recreational hunting opportunities. There are avenues for some stakeholder groups to generate income from wild pigs, however, stakeholders vary in attitudes towards wild pigs and their management. We investigated whether financial loss and income resulting from wild pigs influenced hunter stakeholder attitudes towards their management in Texas. We examined how land use influenced hunting landowner attitudes towards wild pigs. We analyzed 22,176 responses (8,707 landowners, 13,469 nonlandowners) fromTexas hunters to theTexas A&M Human Dimensions of Wild Pigs Survey. Attitudes towards wild pigs varied significantly based on landownership status and whether land was used for agricultural practices. In addition, landowners who received income from wild pigs on their land considered government or agency hunting to be a less acceptable method of control than those who did not generate such income. However, effect sizes for all our results were small (η2 ≤ 0.05, Adj. R2 ≤ 0.09, and McFadden's R2 ≤ 0.07) and, across all groups, attitudes towards wild pigs were negative. Few respondents (3.91% of landowners, 0.56% of non‐landowners) reported generating income from wild pigs, and reported losses were approximately 4 times greater than income.

Supplemental file attached.