U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service



McKee 0000-0002-2283-4191

Mooney 0000-0002-5056-9102

Date of this Version



Q Open (2023) 3: 1–21

doi: 10.1093/qopen/qoad027

JEL codes: Q12, Q18, D21


United States government work


Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) can levy substantial costs to domestic livestock operations and global supply chains due to disease introduction. Producers can take defensive action to avert these costs, but the factors influencing these decisions are not well understood. We examined survey data to characterize the type and frequency of contacts between wild pigs and domestic livestock and investigated the determinants of farm operator concern for disease introduction using an ordered logit model. We found that operators with livestock kept in buildings were more concerned about disease than those with livestock kept in fenced areas or that roam free. However, the latter are at greater risk due to more frequent reported contacts with wild pigs. Results indicate that concern is significantly associated with other characteristics of farm operations, such as operation size, perceived change in wild pig populations, and respondent demographics. Developing a better understanding of the factors influencing operator concern for disease spread can contribute to the improved design of prevention policy targeting small-scale livestock producers. This could help ensure the continued safety of livestock supply chains and reduce the risk of disease-related trade restrictions, along with continued support for dis- ease surveillance and monitoring at the national scale, and prolonged control of domestic vectors such as invasive wild pigs, specifically in regions with the most small operations.