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Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), medium-sized black and white diving ducks, were collected at Arkansas baitfish farms during November-December 1999 (N = 33), January-February 2000 (N = 39), and March-April 2000 (N = 22) to determine seasonal differences in their diet and their relative impact to baitfish production. The mass of gastrointestinal contents was used to determine the proportion of each diet item relative to all items recovered during stomach analyses. Chironomids were the primary food item recovered. Ten of 94 (10.6%) scaup contained identifiable fish biomass. Fish bones and otoliths were found in an additional 14 scaup (14.9%). All fish remains were identified (via otoliths) as those commonly produced at Arkansas baitfish farms (Cyprinidae). Other diet items (ranked by proportional mass) were vegetative seeds, snails, insects, crayfish, and other aquatic worms (class Oligochaeta). Scaup diets were similar among collection periods, between males and females, and between juvenile and mature ducks. We estimated the economic impact of lesser scaup to baitfish production based upon estimated duration of ducks at farms, the proportion of ducks containing fish, and scaup energetic requirements. Provided estimates of scaup abundance and the cost of bird harassment at a particular farm, economic thresholds (i.e., fish replacement cost as a function of scaup predation) will facilitate cost-effective decisions regarding bird damage management at Arkansas baitfish aquaculture facilities.