U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

March 2006


Published in West. J. Appl. For. 21(2): 108–111.


We have identified hydrolyzed casein as a promising repellent for minimizing damage to forest resources inflicted by browsing ungulates. Eight and twelve percent hydrolyzed casein formulations prepared in water with a latex-based agricultural sticker significantly reduced browse damage by captive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to western redcedar (Thuja plicata) saplings. These repellent formulations can be prepared by the user at significant cost savings versus commercial products.