U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

February 2002


Published in Encyclopedia of Pest Management.


As human activity encroaches on wildlife habitats and natural food sources become increasingly scarce, it is no wonder that birds turn to habitats such as crop fields and aquaculture ponds. Where else can large flocks of birds find sufficient, nutritious, readily available food? Agricultural crops create ideal foraging sites for gregarious bird species, and virtually everything that humans grow or raise for food is subject to some level of bird damage. For most farmers, bird damage is a fact of life, but not a major concern. The unlucky few producers for whom depredations are severe, however, do incur substantial financial losses.