U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

May 2005


Published in Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24, 2005.


Three probabilistic models were developed for characterizing the risk of mortality and sub-acute coagulopathy to Poouli, an endangered non-target avian species, in broadcast diphacinone-baited areas on Hawaii, USA. For single-day exposure, the risk of Poouli mortality approaches 0. For 5-d exposure, the mean probability of mortality increased to 3% for adult and 8% for juvenile Poouli populations. For Poouli that consume snails containing diphacinone residues for 14 d, the model predicted increased levels of coagulopathy for 0.42 and 11% of adult and juvenile Poouli populations, respectively. Worst-case deterministic risk characterizations predicted acceptable levels of risk for non-threatened or endangered species such as northern bobwhite quail and mallards. Also, no acute toxicity was noted for snails and slugs that feed on diphacinone baits.