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Three probabilistic models were developed for characterizing the risk of mortality and sub-acute coagulopathy to Poouli, an endangered non-target avian species, in broadcast diphacinone-baited areas on Hawaii, USA. For single-day exposure, the risk of Poouli mortality approaches 0. For 5-d exposure, the mean probability of mortality increased to 3% for adult and 8% for juvenile Poouli populations. For Poouli that consume snails containing diphacinone residues for 14 d, the model predicted increased levels of coagulopathy for 0.42 and 11% of adult and juvenile Poouli populations, respectively. Worst-case deterministic risk characterizations predicted acceptable levels of risk for non-threatened or endangered species such as northern bobwhite quail and mallards. Also, no acute toxicity was noted for snails and slugs that feed on diphacinone baits.