U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Published in Human Wildlife Conflicts 1 (1):68-77, Spring 2007.


Cattle are the main reservoir for human infection by pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonello enterico. To prevent entry of these foodborne pathogens into the human food chain, management factors at the farm level must be identified and controlled. External sources of contamination, such as birds, should be considered as potential sources of transmission over long distances. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology of infection by E. coli and S. enterica and the consequences of birds acting as disseminators of these pathogens at dairy farms in terms of cattle health and the subsequent effects on human health.