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Non-target hazards represent the most significant hurdle to the continued and possibly expanded use of anticoagulant rodenticides. In addition to the possibility of non-target access to the rodenticide bait, non-target scavenger and/or predator species may be exposed to these rodenticides via feeding on the carcasses of poisoned target species. Risk assessments provide a means to estimate the probability of rodenticide associated effects to target and non-target species. Quantification of risk provides critical information for decision-makers to weigh the benefits versus the risks of proposed rodenticide uses. This manuscript reports on the development of a probabilistic risk assessment model for quantifying efficacy and/or adverse effects to target and non-target species, respectively. This risk assessment approach can also be used to identify pesticide use strategies (formulations, bating practices) which minimize nontarget secondary risks yet are efficacious.