U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version

January 2007


Published in Proceedings of the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference (D.L. Nolte, W.M. Arjo, D.H. Stalman, Eds). 2007.


Non-target hazards represent the most significant hurdle to the continued and possibly expanded use of anticoagulant rodenticides. In addition to the possibility of non-target access to the rodenticide bait, non-target scavenger and/or predator species may be exposed to these rodenticides via feeding on the carcasses of poisoned target species. Risk assessments provide a means to estimate the probability of rodenticide associated effects to target and non-target species. Quantification of risk provides critical information for decision-makers to weigh the benefits versus the risks of proposed rodenticide uses. This manuscript reports on the development of a probabilistic risk assessment model for quantifying efficacy and/or adverse effects to target and non-target species, respectively. This risk assessment approach can also be used to identify pesticide use strategies (formulations, bating practices) which minimize nontarget secondary risks yet are efficacious.