U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Published in The Prairie Naturalist 27(3): September 1995.


-Lombardo et al. (1989, Condor 91 :744-747) reviewed two hypotheses for the use of nest boxes by house sparrows Passer domesticus, European starlings Sturnus vulgaris, eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis, and great tits Passer major during the nonbreeding season: (1) roosting in nest cavities may be associated with nest-cavity selection during intense competition for a limited number of usable cavities, and (2) birds use cavities during the non breeding season to decrease the rate of heat loss. We were unable to locate any prior documentation of nest box use by American woodcock (Scolopax major), therefore we report on a new behavior for the American woodcock.