U.S. Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


Date of this Version



Published in International Journal of Pest Management Vol. 56, No. 2, April–June 2010, 109–125.


Registration is a necessarily sophisticated evaluation process applied to vertebrate pesticide products. Although conducted to minimize any potential impacts upon public health, the environment and food production, the all-encompassing process of registration can stifle innovation. Vertebrate pesticides are rarely used to control pest animals in food crops. In contrast to agrochemicals, relatively small amounts of vertebrate pesticides are used (50.1%), usually in solid or paste baits, and generally by discrete application methods rather than by broad-scale spray applications. We present a hierarchy or sliding scale of typical data requirements relative to application techniques, to help clarify an evolving science-based approach which focuses on requiring data to address key scientific questions while allowing waivers where additional data have minor value. Such an approach will facilitate the development and delivery of increasingly humane, species-targeted, low residue pesticides in the New World, along with the phasing out of less desirable chemicals that continue to be used due to a lack of alternatives.