Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version



Proceedings of the 15th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. (J. B. Armstrong, G. R. Gallagher, Eds). 2013.


The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Milorganite® as a repellent to mitigate damage on impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) by free-ranging ground hogs (Marmota monax). This biosolid byproduct of an activated sludge processing technique has been suggested as a repellent for a number of species. Three plots were established within 5 m of verified ground hog burrows at a feed and livestock working facility. Each plot consisted of three plastic containers with six impatiens plants per container. At each plot, containers were secured in drainage trays 2 m apart and received a topdressing application of 2500 kg/ha, 5000 kg/ha or 0 kg/ha equivalent of Milorganite®. Changes in plant area as determined by digital photographs taken on day 0 and day 7 post-treatment were used as an indication of consumption. During the 21-day trial, new plants were treated and evaluated at 7-day interval. Each week, order of plant treatments within each plot was rotated in an array to test for potential location effects. No differences (P > .10) in post-treatment plant area were observed between the treatments. All plants received damage. No differences (P > .10) in level of damage could be attributed to week of study, order of treatments within plot, between plot or technicians evaluating digital photographs. Based on these results Milorganite® did not appear effective as a repellent for ground hogs.