Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version



Published in Proceedings of the 11th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. (D.L. Nolte, K.A. Fagerstone, Eds). 2005.


Although worldwide distributions of many amphibians and reptiles are declining, a handful of species are spreading rapidly throughout tropical regions of the world. The species that have the greatest effect tend to be generalist feeders, have high reproductive rates, attain large population sizes, and often due to their behavior and or small size, are easily transported or are difficult to detect. The most notable of these species include the coqui frog, cane toad, bullfrog, brown tree snake, and Burmese pythons. The effect of a few individuals typically is small but the combined effect of large populations can be devastating to ecological communities and agriculture. Currently, there are few methods available to effectively remove established populations. However, invasive species management capabilities are developing, with more effective methods in detecting incipient populations, improved control methods, more stringent restrictions on movement of nonnative animals, and increased public support.