Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for


Date of this Version

September 1970


The effectiveness of 3-chloro p-toluidine (DRC-1339) as an avicide, particular¬ly on the European starling, has been adequately demonstrated (DeCino, Cunningham, and Schafer, 1966; Schwab, 1965, 1966, and 1967). Methods of applying the com¬pound which have proved useful range from the standard baiting technique (Besser, Royall, and DeGrazio, 1967; Royall, DeCino, and Besser, 1967; West, 1968) to pos¬sible aerial application of the compound to roosting sites (Schwab, 1967). These methods, particularly the latter, inherently lead to widespread environmental exposure. As the chemical name implies, DRC-1339 is a chlorinated hydrocarbon. It thereby carries the stigma, whether justifiable or not, of environmental persistence and con¬centration at the upper end of the food chain (Rudd, 1966). Therefore, before the compound can be used as a widespread agent in bird control, its persistence and physical behavior in the ecosystem must be determined. Unlike many chlorinated hydrocarbons, 3-chloro p-toluidine is water soluble within the range of biological effectiveness as an avicide. As a first step then, we have tested its stability in water when exposed to the common physical components of the environment. The effects of heat, cold, light, oxidation, and evaporation have been tested.