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At the center of the historic and contemporary Maya homeland in Central America lies the largest tropical rain forest north of the Amazon, a hotspot of biodiversity and an archaeological treasure trove. Split between Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico, management and conservation of cultural and ecological resources in the Maya Tropical Forest are at a critical juncture. While scientists and conservationists seek to preserve the area for future generations, regional economic and population pressures drive people further into the forest. The establishment of several parks, protected areas, and reserves has led to significant progress toward the preservation of the area, but much work remains.