Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for



Date of this Version

August 2005


Modified from original content developed by the University of Southern Mississippi/College of Marine Sciences/Gulf Coast Research Laboratory through a grant administered by the Gulf of Mexico Program. Permission to use.


European starlings are among the most successful of North American invaders. They are common throughout the United States and thrive in disturbed areas such as around farm lands and in suburban areas, where seasonally they form huge flocks (Burleigh, 1958; Kaufman, 1996). They are also common in coastal areas near salt water (Imhof, 1962) and have been reported to roost in large numbers in marshes (Forbush, 1955). They tend to be rare in undisturbed areas (Kaufman, 1996). They form large flocks, especially in the winter, and are frequently observed in association with blackbirds and grackles (Sprunt, 1954).