Center for Systematic Entomology, Gainesville, Florida


Date of this Version



Insecta Mundi 0615: 1–38

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Published in 2018 by Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc. P.O. Box 141874 Gainesville, FL 32614-1874 USA

Copyright held by the author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons, Attribution Non-Commercial License,


A combination of five characters supports the arrangement of three species in the Anthocharis sara complex (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae: Anthocharidini) consisting of Anthocharis sara Lucas, 1852 (Sara orangetip), Anthocharis thoosa Scudder, 1878 (southwestern orangetip), and Anthocharis julia W.H. Edwards, 1872 (Julia orangetip). These five characters include adult phenotypes, fifth instar larval coloration, pupal cone curvature and color, number of overwintering cycles, and interspecific contact zone behavior. This taxonomic treatment is generated from extensive life history studies from 12 western U.S. states through most of the sara complex distribution.