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Documentation is developed for Conomyrma insana (Buckley) and C. flava (McCook) as valid names for two abundant species of ants in the United States. Taxonomic history, synonymies, diagnostic criteria, distribution and natural history for both species are reviewed. The intraspecific variability, particularly important for C. flava, is summarized. Neotype and lectotype specimens are designated for C. insana and C. flava respectively, and a key provided for all known Conomyrma species in the United States.