Five new species of anilline ground beetles (Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini) are described from the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont Plateau of eastern United States. Two species, Anillinus unicoi n. sp. (from the Unicoi Mountains, North Carolina) and A. carltoni n. sp. (from the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina/ Tennessee), inhabit the crests of adjacent mountain ranges, and share similarities with A. moseleyae Sokolov and Carlton. These three comprise a high-altitude group of species in the region. The third species A. chilhowee n. sp. Is one of the smallest representatives of the loweae-group of species. It differs from its relatives in characters of male genitalia and inhabits the isolated Chilhowee Mountain ridge between Ocoee and Hiwassee Rivers (Polk County, Tennessee). The fourth and fifth species possess complex arrays of spines on the internal sac of the aedeagus, similar to A. valentinei (Jeannel) from caves of Alabama. In the case of A. smokiensis n. sp. (Gregory Cave, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee), the aedeagal similarity suggests a close relationship with A. valentinei. Anillinus chandleri n. sp. from the Piedmont Plateau (Sumter National Forest, South Carolina) is similar to A. cornelli Sokolov and Carlton, also described from the Carolina Piedmont region. Keys are provided for the new species, where possible.