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The taxonomy of the African and Madagascan species of the tiger beetle genus Chaetodera Jeannel 1946 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) is reviewed based on studies of primary types and additional museum specimens. Six species are recognized: C. andriana (Alluaud 1900), C. antatsima (Alluaud 1902), C. blanchardi (Fairmaire 1882), C. maheva (Künckel d’Herculais 1887), C. perrieri (Fairmaire 1897), and C. regalis (Dejean 1831). All species are illustrated, including color variants, and a key to species and maps of species distributions are provided. A hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships is proposed for the nine worldwide species of the genus Chaetodera based on computerized parsimony analysis of a matrix containing data on 16 adult morphological characteristics.