Center for Systematic Entomology, Gainesville, Florida


Date of this Version



Insecta Mundi 0274: 1-108


Published in 2012 by Center for Systematic Entomology, Inc. P. O. Box 141874 Gainesville, FL 32614-1874 USA

Copyright held by the author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons, Attribution Non-Commercial License,


The purpose of this paper is to reassess the taxonomy of Phanaeus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to accommodate new taxa and changes in taxonomic opinion since the publication of Edmonds’ 1994 revision of the genus. The two subgenera and 13 species groups established by Edmonds (1994) remain unchanged. A revised set of keys with accompanying comments and illustrations separates 54 recognized valid species. Seven recently described valid species are incorporated into the revised classification: Phanaeus blackalleri Delgado-Castillo, 1991; P. bordoni Arnaud, 1996; P. changdiazi Kohlmann and Solís, 2001; P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000; P. martinezorum Arnaud, 2000; P. yecoraensis Edmonds, 2004; and P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006. The new name Phanaeus sororibispinus Edmonds and Zidek replaces Phanaeus alvarengai Arnaud, 1984, a primary junior homonym of P. alvarengai Pereira and d’Andretta, 1955. Three subspecies recognized in 1994 are elevated to species rank, new status: Phanaeus texensis Edmonds, 1994; P. pilatei Harold, 1863; and P. guatemalensis Harold, 1871. Phanaeus obliquans Bates, 1887 is removed from synonymy and given new status as a valid species. Twelve new junior subjective synonyms (bold) are recognized: P. tridens balthasari Arnaud, 2002 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); P. dzidoi Arnaud, 2000 (of P. palaeno Blanchard, 1843); P. genieri Arnaud, 2002 (of P. amethystinus Harold, 1863); P. prasinus jolyi Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868); P. kirbyi ledezmai Arnaud, 2002 (of P. kirbyi Vigors, 1825); P. achilles lydiae Arnaud, 2000 (of P. achilles Boheman, 1858); P. chalcomelas grossii Arnaud, 2001 (of P. chalcomelas [Perty, 1830]); P pyrois malyi Arnaud, 2002 (of P. pyrois Bates, 1887); P. tridens moroni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. tridens Castenau, 1840); P. lecourti peruanus Arnaud, 2000 (of P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000); P. endymion porioni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. endymion Harold, 1863); P. pseudofurcosus Balthasar, 1939 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); and P. prasinus trinidadensis Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868). “Phanaeus viridicollis” Olsoufieff, 1924 (sensu Arnaud 2002) is an unavailable name here considered a color variant of P. pyrois Bates, 1887.

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The 1994 revision of Phanaeus Macleay by W. D. Edmonds, from Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) is also attached (below) in both low-res (15 Mb) and high-res (68 Mb) versions.

0274EdmondsandZidek-full.pdf (595540 kB)
High-resolution version of this article (595 Mb)

Edmonds-1994-small.pdf (15444 kB)
1994 article, low-res version

Edmonds-1994-large.pdf (67907 kB)
1994 article, high-res version