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This study reports the publication output of librarians in public universities in South-west, Nigeria. The descriptive survey method was used for the study. 166 copies of the questionnaire were administered to librarians in both federal and state university libraries. In response, 142 copies were retrieved indicating a response rate of 85.5%. The data was analyzed using frequency count, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Findings indicated that the publication output of librarians between 2009 and 2014 was relatively high. Librarians publish more in international journals than local journals and, librarians are motivated to publish mostly for promotion. Challenges to publication efforts of librarians among others are time constraints, poor interpretation skills, exorbitant publication fees by journal outfits, and indiscriminate rejection of manuscripts by journals. It is recommended that librarians should imbibe the culture of time management; periodic research training should be organized for librarians on data analysis, choosing research topics and literature searching and review; Individual institutions should promote the research culture; librarians should subject their research reports and findings to in-house peer review before submitting them for publication; while mentoring and mentorship should be institutionalized in the institutions by their management.