Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln

 

Date of this Version

2016

Citation

Background to the Study

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, in its National Policy on Education (2004), recommended the provision of functional school libraries stocked with appropriate media resources meant to promote sound and effective teaching and learning activities, boost students’ reading habits and motivate students to come up with desired academic achievement. The minimum standard, according to the policy, should consist of books, pamphlets, paper cuttings, gazettes and government publications, atlas, maps and charts, photography records, films, record players, cassette tapes/ payers, film projections, slides, pictures, photographs, realia and periodicals. The book collections, according to the policy outline, comprise reference books, non-fictions and fictions. The need for the provision of these school library resources is to provide a clear path towards the realization of curriculum goals of secondary school subjects, Social Studies inclusive. The school library should be set up to facilitate implementation of educational policy goals by providing appropriate media resources through careful selection, acquisition and processing of the resources and make both print and non-print media resources available for use of the school community, particularly, students.

School library media resources are vital to the teaching and learning of school subjects which may likely influence academic performance of students at the Junior Secondary School level. The school library media centre plays a significant role in the educational development of students. The High Level Policy Committee on Curriculum Development (HLPCCD) and Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) took the initiative, in this direction, to provide the guideline for restructuring educational curriculum to ensure continuity and flow of themes, topics and experiences from primary to Junior Secondary School levels (Olaojo, 2012). The learning resource collections of the School Library Media Centre (SLMC) are selected and acquired in order to achieve the purpose and goals of the curriculum. The only surest way of facilitating instructions is to provide a functional SLMC that is supportive to teaching-learning programmes in Nigerian Schools because the services provided by the centre touch learners’ lives and inspire their imagination, learning and creativity (Williams, Coles, Blackwell, 2002).

Osiki (2001) defined academic achievement as knowledge attaining ability or degree of competence in school tasks usually measured by standard tests and expressed in a grade or units based on pupils’ performance. Thus, academic achievement can therefore be referred to as excellence or accomplishments in all academic disciplines in class as well as co-curricular activities. This, however, excludes excellence in sporting, behaviour, confidence, communication skills, punctuality, arts, culture, and the likes which can be achieved only when an individual is well adjusted. In another vein, Good (1999) viewed academic achievements as the knowledge attained or skills developed in the school subjects usually designed by tests’ scores or marks assigned by the teachers, while Amazigo (2000) was of the opinion that academic achievements can also refer to academic performance which includes both curricular and co-curricular activities of the students. It, therefore, encompasses learning outcomes of the students.

The need to educate the child firmly on the rudiments of his culture and, thereby, utilise education as an agent of social and political change through emphasis on citizenship has necessitated the introduction of Social Studies in schools in Nigeria. In this regard, Falade (2007) observed that social studies promotes good citizenship and helps to organise the citizens towards positive and progressive participation in the socio-economic and political lives of the nation. It is a subject that involves acquisition of knowledge about the culture of a geographical location and how to enhance interpersonal relationship. It entails the development of skills and attitude required for participatory citizenship through gathering of information from varieties of disciplines, experiences, thoughts and social interaction (Edinyang and Ubi, 2012).

Agitation for the need to introduce Social Studies started in Nigeria after independence (Edinyang, 2001). Then, it was noted by scholars that Nigerian educational system was alienated from its natural and cultural environment. Awareness about Nigeria’s environment was relegated to the background by the British educational system and generally, the school curriculum focused on pupils' learning outside their environment more than within. The Mombasa Conference of 1968 of which Nigeria was among the eleven participating countries addressed this problem. The conference communiqué stressed the need to reflect African culture and environment through teaching and learning of Social Studies. Consequently, participants finally came up with Social Studies curriculum which was accepted by all for adoption to suit the local needs of the individual participating countries.

The Nigerian Social Studies curriculum affirmed the need to create awareness and understanding of the social environment, physical environment, cultural resources and spiritual resources; develop the capacity to learn and acquire observational and analytical skills which are essential for the formation of sound judgment; ensure acquisition of relevant knowledge that would facilitate personal contribution to the betterment of mankind; and develop a sympathetic appreciation of the diversity and interdependence of all members of the local and international community (Ogundare, 2000). Besides, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, 2010) stated that the aims and objectives of Social Studies include development of understanding of immediate surroundings by children; education of young citizens in the areas of attitude, values and norms of the society; promotion of effective and active citizenship; understanding of social problems and finding solutions to them; creation of understanding of roles during elections and other civic responsibilities; development of the ability to think reflectively and come to independent conclusions; and creation of awareness that discipline is essential for an orderly society. The principal aim of Social Studies education is an attempt to give learners some skills, competencies and intellectual capability necessary for them to live useful life in the society. Social Studies education is, thus, a complex process of cooperation and communication between the teacher and learner. It is a clear means by which students are assisted to acquire new stills, values, attitudes, appreciations, knowledge and understanding. (Egharevba, 2006). A good Social Studies curriculum is one which helps young individuals to fully develop into human adults by relating them to their society by means of appropriate knowledge and experiences selected from the social sciences.

The topics include meaning, scope and nature of Social Studies, physical environment (types of environment, features of physical and social environment, influence of human being on the physical environment), social environment (social groups in the environment, roles of social groups and causes of conflict within social groups). Others are trafficking in children and women (factors responsible for women and children trafficking, consequences of children and women trafficking, and ways of preventing human trafficking) and peace (meaning of peace, importance of living in peace with one another and ways of promoting peace). The achievement and failure of students in Social Studies, among other variables, may depend on the availability of appropriate and adequate school library resources for the teaching and learning of Social Studies. The failure of learners in Social Studies, which does not involve any serious mathematical calculation that many students are usually scared of, therefore, inform the need for this research to find out whether lack of provision of or inadequacy of library media resources may be a factor responsible for the low academic performance.

The integration of the subject into the JSS curriculum is to make the students realize the importance of Social Studies in the development of good citizens with healthy attitude towards neighbours and government and appraise the level of students’ academic achievement particularly in the area of Social Studies as a subject. Ogunsaju (2004) attributed poor achievement in Social Studies to failure of schools to make available relevant instructional materials that would motivate students to learn. Odor (2003) confirmed that this problem of poor academic performance was due to inadequacy of funds for the procurement of standard educational resources. Equally, Adeleke (2010) observed that students' poor achievement in Social Studies was as a result of adoption of teaching-learning methods that did not carry learners along due to less interactivity and abortion of set objective.

Statement of the Problem

The focus on the provision of appropriate and relevant library resources is becoming very important realizing the need for a teaching—learning process that is resources- based in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Besides, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC)(2012) recommended the use of numerous library and instructional resources for instructions in all subjects including Social Studies. However, it has been observed that the SLMC has been passive in its role as the custodian of library and information resources meant to motivate students to progress in their academic endeavor. This development may engender a situation where learning becomes passive and students become less creative, receptive to problem-solving and no longer used to critical thinking. This may likely affect the performance of students in the school subjects, particularly, Social Studies. The problem of low performance of secondary school students in Social Studies as a subject occasioned by lack of appropriate school library resources has been a serious concern to parents and education stakeholders.

The problem is getting worse due to factors like poverty, environmental variables, students’ personality factors, socio-economic factors and problems associated with students’ roles and students’ learning environment, particularly, lack of school library resources for the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria In most cases, attention has been focused on students’ academic achievement relating to teachers’ roles and students’ personality problems rather than on availability and adequacy of school library media resources and satisfaction derived by students from the use of resources in the teaching-learning process in the area of Social Studies, hence, the need to investigate the relationship between availability of school library media resources and students’ academic achievement in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State.

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate availability school library media resources as a predictor of achievement in Social Studies among students of Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State with the sole aim of encouraging government and other stakeholders to establish functional library resources center that will be useful for instructions in Social Studies teaching-learning process. The specific objectives are to:

i. identify the variety of available school library resources for the teaching of Social Studies in Junior in Secondary Schools in Ondo State

ii. find out the relationship between availability of school library resources and students’ academic achievement in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the study:

  1. What are the varieties of school library media resources available for Social Studies instructions in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State?
  2. What is the level of academic achievement of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies in Ondo State?

Hypothesis

This hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance:

H01: There is no significant relationship between school library media resources availability and students’ academic achievement in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State.

Literature Review

There are many definitions of Social Studies, therefore, there is no single definition that is universally acceptable for social studies as a school subject. However, Social Studies deals with the interaction between man and his environment, how man influences the environment and how the environment, in turn, influences man. According to Fadaiye (1999) "Social Studies is a subject that studies man in his social, historical, geographical and cultural context" Makinde (2001) described Social Studies as a subject that presents knowledge as a whole in an attempt to study human beings. It is clearly seen from the two definitions that the major concern of social studies is man. The subject brings knowledge and ideas together so as to study man. It also studies all the aspects of man's reality with a particular interest in his encounter in his environment. In the contribution of Ogundare (2000), he expressed that Social Studies is a study of problem of survival in an environment and how to find solution to them. He believed that it is a multidisciplinary study of topic, a problem, an issue, a concern or an aspiration. It, in essence, deals with how human being can fit into the society and organise necessary attitudes, values, and skills. He, in addition, pointed out that Social Studies is not geography, it is neither history nor government. It is not economics. It is also not an amalgamation of the social sciences. Rather, social studies is a subject designed specifically for the study of man and how his problems are solved.

Social Studies is not only concerned about the development of the cognitive aspect, the subject also intends to inculcate in the learner those values and skills that will enable him to function effectively in his society. Social Studies integrates ideas, knowledge, information and concepts from social sciences and other school disciplines to develop the skills and values for effective citizenship, Falade (1997) corroborated the idea when he stated that Social Studies in Nigeria is to ensure good citizenship and help to organise the citizens towards positive and progressive participation in the socio-economic and political lives of the nation, Social Studies develops in the learner those civic traits that will assist him to become a responsible citizen. The traits include obedience, loyalty, honesty, fair play, and so on.

The goal of Social Studies in the United States, in the early 1900s, has changed and no longer the same at present. The current meaning of social studies in the United States is that it is a subject that involves the acquisition of essential knowledge of history and social science. It entails the development of the skills and attitude required for competent, participatory citizenship in a democratic society, and in the global community; it is a programme designed to educate for effective citizenship by organised gathering of information from a variety of disciplines, and experiences, along with thinking, decision making, communication, social interaction and civic participation (NCSS, 1991; Adaralegbe, 2000), in his earliest definition, stated that Social Studies is an interdisciplinary field in which man learns about problems of survival in his environment. He added that it is a study of how man influences and is, in turn, influenced by his physical social political, religious, economic, psychological, cultural, scientific and technological environments. The National Committee on Primary School Social Studies further upheld this conception by stating that social studies is the common learning of man's interaction with his social and physical environments. The committee concluded that Social Studies is the totality of experience and understanding a child gets having been exposed to a course of study based on man's problems in his environment, the factors that are normally responsible in human' interactions with his environment and the resulting ways of life of man.

Another view of social studies is that it is a study of people. It goes on to say that people live in specific places, that is Geography. They live at a specific time; which is History. They earn a living, which is Economics. They live in various groups: families, tribes, friendship groups, committees and interest groups, which is of Sociology/Anthropology. They organize themselves, or are organized into political units of many kinds; this is the study of Government.

Another definition, which should be considered, is that which defines Social Studies as those portions of the Social Sciences that are selected for use for teaching school subjects (Perkings, 2004) It can therefore be explained that the subjects drawn from i.e. History, Geography, Economics, Government, Anthropology, and Sociology, are not taught as separate subjects but are frequently drawn upon by exponents of Social Studies.

All these views may be likened to the experience of a group of blind men and an elephant (Aina 2008). The blind men were asked to describe the elephant: one touched its body and described it as a thick wall, another touched the ears and said it was a big fan and the third touched the leg and said it was a great pillar. While each of these blind men's statements might be taken as partially true, they are not the whole truth. So is each of the various definitions of Social Studies representing some aspects of the whole truth.

Generally, Falade (2007) classified social studies' objectives into (3) main areas which are the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. According to him, the cognitive is, otherwise, referred to as knowledge objective which emphasizes intellectual ability-knowing and understanding, the affective is connected with the development of values, ideas and appreciation in the citizen, while the psycho - motor domain deals with the development of skills and potentialities in the learners. The objectives are as follows:

i. the need for children to develop an understanding of their immediate surroundings;

ii. since there is a world-wide trend towards a technological and scientific approach, Social Studies aims at developing the children to deal with and manage the forces of the world in which they live in a society where many different groups co-exist

iii. Social Studies should play a unique role in educating the young citizens in harmonious living and in an understanding of the different peoples who make up the society.

iv. the creation of an awareness on the learners about their surroundings;

v. the development of specific fundamentals such as the attitudes, values and norms of the society.

vi. the promotion of effective and active citizenship

vii. the promotion of an understanding of the social problems of their locality and finding possible solutions to them;

  1. the ability to relate favourably to the products and peoples of the nation;

ix. helping the learners to develop the right altitudes towards the leaders of the government;

x. the creation of an understanding of their role during elections, especially, on how to discharge their duties effectively;

xi. the development of the ability to think reflectively and come to independent conclusions;

xii. the development of an understanding of how the lives of people who lived in the past affect our present day lives and how we can improve the present for the future;

  1. the demonstration of flexibility and a willingness to accept necessary changes within a system, i.e. education, government or law, for the good of all;
  2. the appreciation of the rules and regulations that guide behaviour of mutual respect as very important regardless of our differences; and

xv. the creation of an awareness that discipline is essential for an orderly society.

After independence, well-meaning Nigerians more importantly those from the academic began to express the needs and aspirations of the Nigerian people and the type of education provided by the British in Nigeria. The education system was described as trendy and irrelevant to the goals of a newly independent Nigeria. Fafunwa (1989) gave this succinct description "the educational system in Nigeria; instead of developing positive knowledge, attitudes, values and skills on the society in which the African child lives, tends to alienate human from his cultural environment".

Fafunwa further illustrated this situation by citing some examples, thus - in geography, pupils were directed to learn the names of rivers, mountains, valleys, food crops, and events in Europe. Similarly, the same applied to History, Arithmetic, Literature, English Language, Religious and Nature Study. In these subjects, African environment were relegated and unknown and generally, the school curriculum focused pupils' learning outside their environment more than within.

This growing concern for educational reform in Africa culminated in the organisation of various workshops, seminars and conferences. The most relevant of these conferences that relates to the teaching of Social Studies was the Mombassa conference of 1968. Among other things, the conference stressed the urgent need to reflect African culture and environment through the teaching and learning of Social Studies. Participants at that conference finally came up with a Social Studies curriculum, which was accepted by all for adoption to suit the local needs of the individual participating countries. Nigeria was among the eleven countries that participated in the conference, and it was at this conference that a revolution for a new approach to the teaching of Social Studies on Africa was adopted.

In this new approach, Social Studies was to be taught as an integration of the traditional subjects such as, History, Geography, including elements of Anthropology, Economics, and Sociology. The Mombassa Social Studies Conference of 1968 selected four general objectives to give support and guide to the growth of Social Studies in Africa. These objectives are :

  1. to create an awareness and understanding of the evolving social and physical environment as a whole, its natural, man - made, cultural and spiritual resources together, with this rationale, were needed for development.
  2. to develop a capacity to learn and acquire skills including not only the basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, and of calculating, but also those skills of observation, analysis, and interference which are essential to the forming of sound judgment.
  3. to ensure acquisition of the relevant knowledge which is an essential pre-requisite to personal contribution to the betterment of mankind.
  4. to develop a sympathetic appreciation of the diversity and interdependence of all members of the local and international community.

Prior to Mombassa Conference of 1968, the Ayetoro experiment sponsored by USA1D and the Ford Foundation marked the early beginning of a truly indigenous Social Studies programme in Nigeria, Therefore, as early as 1963, schools in the Western region of Nigeria had started to incorporate the Integrated Social Studies into their curricula based on the Ayetoro experiment. As reported by Osakwe and Itedgere (1993), the 1965 conference of principals, in the then Western Nigeria, formed a very useful forum for propagating the message of the "new Social Studies". This is because the conference adopted the proposed outline of Social Studies syllabus for the Junior classes of the Secondary Schools. The Ayetoro project also came out with some books on Social Studies which were displayed during another conference of the principals. The Ford Foundation later on sponsored the re-writing and mass production of the books so as to make them useable nationwide.

Other major organisations that were much involved in the development of Social Studies curriculum included the former Comparative Education Study (CESAC) which was based in the University of Lagos, and the former Nigeria Educational Research Council (NERC) now NERDC. These two organisations were involved in organising the teaching and ‘learning of Social Studies in schools. In addition, the Social Studies Association of Nigeria (SOSAN), which was formed around this period, also played a very vital role in entrenching the curriculum of Social Studies as a distinct field of study in Nigeria schools. Therefore, the 1969 curriculum conference finally adopted Social Studies as one of the core subjects that could lead to the "inculcation of the right of the individuals and the society". Today, Social Studies is firmly rooted as one of the compulsory subjects at the primary and junior secondary levels of Nigerian education. Presently, efforts are on to make the subject one of the elective subjects at the Senior Secondary School level. In Nigerian tertiary institutions, Social Studies is becoming a prominent field of study and one that enjoys high patronage.

Library resources are vital tools in education, in general, and the teaching and learning of Social Studies, in particular. The resources encompass all persons and thing that are capable, in one way or the other, of conveying information, values, processes, experiences and techniques that can be used to actively engage 'learners’ in the learning process (Akpochafo, 2003). The teaching and learning of Social Studies, particularly, at the secondary school level, require diverse human and material resources. Elaturoti (2010) made reference to sections e and f of the National Policy on Education reporting the provision of school library services in schools.

The sections state as follows:

“The library is at the heart of education enterprise. The virtual library as a platform for sharing knowledge is aimed at rejuvenating Nigerian schools through the provision of current books, journals and other information resources using technology. Since library constitutes one of the most important educational services, proprietors of schools shall also provide functional libraries in all their educational institutions in accordance with the established standards. They should also provide for training of librarian and library assistants for their service (National Policy on Education, 2004)”.

Elaturoti (2010) further stated that school library media centre resources are meant to provide services that are;

(i) supporting and enhancing educational goals as outlined in the schools mission and curriculum

(ii) developing and sustaining in children the habit and enjoyment of reading and learning and the user of libraries throughout their lives.

(iii) Offering opportunities for experience in creating and using information for knowledge, understanding, imagination and enjoyment.

(iv) supporting all students in learning and practicing skills for evaluating and using information regardless of forms, formats or medium

(v) providing access to local, regional, national and global resources and opportunities that expose learners to divers ideas, experience and opinions

(vi) organizing activities that encourages cultural and social awareness and sensitivity

(vii) working with students, teachers, administrators and parents to achieve the mission of the school

(viii) proclaiming the concept that intellectual freedom and access to information are essential to effective and responsible citizenship and participation in democracy; and

(ix) promoting reading and resources and services of the school library to the whole school community and beyond.

According to Odusanya and Amusa (2004), library provides an atmosphere for self-education and self-development of individual student and public in general. It is expected to bring its services within the reach of every adult member of the public and every child in the school irrespective of their social and mental status; and also to provide resources of all types on all subjects for students at various levels and classes.

Obayemi (2002), while trying to create awareness about important roles library plays in secondary education in Nigeria, before deplore the neglect of library and its resources development in some government owned secondary schools in Lagos State. The library, according to him, were crossly underfunded, understaffed, understocked and unorganized. These findings also confirmed the observation of the Nigerian School Library Association at its annual conference held in Nsukka in October, 2002. The conference observed that the absence policy on school library development has been stalling the growth and development of school library in Nigeria. The availability of such policy, according to the association, would have set the minimum standard for funding, staffing, stocking and management of school library.

Dike (2004) also opined that the modern school library stands at the very centre of educational programme of the school, it is often referred to as the heart of the school or as the laboratory of laboratories. This is because modern education is resources based; the resources for teaching and learning are to be found in the school resource centre which is the other name for the school library whose central mission is supporting the curriculum, furthering the teaching and learning programme of the school.

The demand for resources-driven knowledge is expanding exponentially and this increase can be attributed to the global challenges for educational development triggered by advocacy for the provision of appropriate and modern innovative information communication technological devices that are regarded as the basis for the acquisition of higher levels of skills and qualifications for future development (Katz, 2001).

Developed countries of the world, realizing the need for resource-driven learning and to meet the changing world- wide demand for education, have adopted electronic learning to overcome the barriers to educational opportunities available for teeming population of students. There is, therefore, the need to appraise the extent of availability of library resources for social studies education in Nigerian Secondary Schools with a special focus on Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State. Library media resources for teaching and learning can be categorised into two forms. These are:

  1. Those that are primarily employed for communication between people (human to human interaction) otherwise known as communication technologies. This form allows communication between teachers and students and examples are fax, radio, teleconferencing, videoconferencing and the internet.
  2. Those resources that are primarily used by individuals on their own (human to computer interaction) called learning resources technologies. The types are used as instructional resources for conveying subject contents such as print materials, video tapes, audio tapes, television, computer based course wares or software and CD-ROM (Compact Disk – Read Only Memory). The provision of these important resources will definitely motivate the school teachers to help students to learn more about Social Studies, acquire problem solving skills in the subject, develop the spirit of enquiry and, above all, prepare the students for the process of life-long education (Inomiesa and Osalawe, 1998).

The United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organsation (UNESCO) and United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) among others, realising the need for availability of library resources in the learning environments have immensely contributed, in diverse ways to the provision of instructional resources in Nigeria. While some organisations, according to Aina and Adekenye (2013), have helped to set up micro-- teaching and language laboratory, others have assisted some states in Nigeria to establish resource centres.

Falodun (2003) also found that between 1959 and 1966, the USPID/Indiana University Project in Nigeria established the educational resources centre and assisted five others that employed over one hundred and eighty Nigerians in the production and distribution of education materials to schools. At the same time, forty three Nigerians were trained at Indiana University in audio-visual communication. The centres established were charged with the responsibility of training of teachers to use modern technique and learning resources to improve the quality of education. The importance of library resources was also stressed by Fayose (2000) when he explained that library resources are very vital to study and teaching. He explained that library resources are the resources required by students for their study. The resources, according to him, consist of recommended textbooks, books to support class tests, journals, past examination papers, reference books, monographs, while research materials are used by higher degree students and lecturers.

Servey (2000) revealed that teachers do not make use of appropriate library/learning resources to cater for different learning abilities of learners. He followed and observed a single school for a period of a year to find out if they use productive instructional materials for teaching Social Studies. The findings showed that instructional materials used by teachers did not meet learners needs in terms of their level of skills. According to him, no two individuals can learn exactly the same way, the most appropriate means to learning therefore seems to be an individualistic approach to learning and this is the type that is highly desired. The Social Studies classroom should therefore focus on using library (instructional) resources that are appropriate for Social Studies instructions as these will help mould students into developing a democratic character.

The only way in which Social Studies objectives can be realized and skills taught, according to Mautte (2000), is by placing learners in situation where they can practice the needed skills. He said further that, skills could not be taught through telling learners about skills ordinarily in a given situation. He therefore encouraged Social Studies teachers to break away from the teacher- exposition mode and appreciate the fact that the teaching of Social Studies curriculum cannot be effectively accomplished through simple transmission of facts.

Mautle’s position was affirmed by Jotia (2006) when he declared that every government should take initiative to inculcate values in its citizens from an early age. According to him, for African governments to develop strong democracies that are going to support sustainable development, food production, and employment, they need to implement democratic curricula that are resources based so that the civil society can be exposed to democratic participation at an early stage. Killen, (2006), while writing on the need for provision of library resources, stressed that the issue of resources may not be easy to resolve, but the important thing, according to him, is that teachers should not take lack of resources as an excuse for not teaching well. This, therefore, implies that alternatives should be devised and teachers should not depend too much on government for ready-made instructional materials but should try to improvise whenever the need arises.

Aguolu and Aguolu (2002), however, expressed that the effectiveness of any availability of library resources in education is when the resources are accessible to users in a library or any learning resources centre even when such learning material are bibliographically relevant to one’s subject of interest. Therefore, the more accessible information sources are the ones that are regularly used. Obru (2004) corroborated this when he identified natural and artificial barriers to free access to information. He added that a library’s poor reputation is attributed to lack of accessibility to information sources.

Methodology

Research Design

This study adopted descriptive research of survey type which collects and analyses data about the characteristics, facts and qualities of a given population, event or place and make necessary prediction and test associational relationships as accurately as possible. The method was appropriate because of the variables that existed and which were investigated in the study.

Population of the Study

The population of the study consisted of all the Junior Secondary School students in all public schools in Ondo State, all SLMC specialists and Social Studies teachers in all Junior Secondary Schools in the three senatorial districts of Ondo State.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size

Ondo State has three senatorial districts namely; Ondo North, Ondo Central and Ondo South respectively. There are eighteen local governments in the three senatorial districts with six local governments concentrated in each of the senatorial districts. Therefore, multistage sampling technique based on the state senatorial arrangement was adopted for sample selection. At the first stage, simple random sampling method was adopted to select two Local Governments each from the senatorial districts using balloting system.

At the second stage, the purposive sampling technique was adopted to select 42 public secondary schools with school library media centre as shown in Table 3.2. Any secondary school that does not have a functional library, library media specialist and Social Studies teachers was exempted from this study.

Random sampling technique was adopted to select thirty students from each of the selected public junior secondary schools with school libraries totaling 1,260. The justification for the selection is that choosing all the students in the selected public secondary schools would have been too large a sample size for the study. The junior secondary school three students were chosen for the study as they might have covered a reasonable ground in the subject curriculum. The Junior Secondary School I and II (JSS I and II) students were not included in this study because the researcher observed that they might not have covered enough topics in Social Studies unlike the Junior Secondary School III students. All the Social Studies teachers totaling one hundred and one (101) and all the school library media Specialists which summed up to fifty four (54) were selected in the sampled schools.

Research Instrument

The study made use of two research instruments (questionnaire and academic achievement test). The questionnaire is made up of three sections namely: School Library Media Resources Questionnaire for Teachers (SLMRQT), School Library Media Resources Questionnaire for Students (SLMRS) and School library Media Resources Questionnaire for Media Specialists (SLMRQMS). Students’ Academic Achievement Test (SAAT) in Social Studies is made up of fifty (50) objective questions with one mark each for an objective question answered correctly. The achievement test has two sections; section A for demographic variables, and section B which contains the test items.

Validation and Reliability of Instruments

The questionnaires for teachers, school media specialists and students were given to experts in Social Studies and Library Archival and Information Studies for proper scrutiny to ensure content validity of the instruments. Based on their suggestions and criticisms, items in the questionnaires were modified, thus, making them suitable and appropriate for the study.

Besides, the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was carried out through trial – testing on 30 respondents apart from those used for the main study. The collected data was subjected to Cronbach-Alpha Reliability Coefficient. The results are 0.77 , 0.71 and 0.70 for School Library Media Resources Questionnaire for Students, School Library Media Resources Questionnaire for Teachers and Media Specialists respectively.

The validation and reliability of students’ academic achievement test was determined by giving the test items to experts and teachers in Social Studies to inspect and assess the correctness of the test items. The test items were also examined to see if the test items actually cover relevant topics in the Social Studies syllabus. A trial-testing was carried out on 40 JSS students apart from those used for the main study. The Difficulty Index ranged from 30%- 76% while the Discrimination Index was between 0.20 and 0.60 . The data collected was subjected to KR 2.0 , and the result was 0.81.

Data Collection Procedure

The researcher made use of six (6) research assistants whose collaboration assisted in achieving effectiveness in the distribution and collection of questionnaires from the fields. The research assistants were orientated on the nature and content of the questionnaires which includes explanation on the main concepts, use and application of media resources by students and teachers, operation of School Library Media Center and varieties of available school library media resources before they embarked on the distribution. They were, in addition, informed on how important it was to make the respondents realise that any data collected would be employed to create awareness about the need for acquiring, organizing and making available library resources for improved academic performance. They were also made to know how important it is to educate the respondents on how relevant whatever data collected are to school library media centre roles and challenges in the provision and organisation of library resources for learning activities. The training lasted for 2 days. A letter of introduction was presented to the sampled schools to formally introduce the researcher and his assistants to the school management. This was followed by assigning one research assistant to each of the local government to work with the researcher. Data collection lasted for eight (8) weeks.

Methods of Data Analysis

The appropriate statistical tools such as percentages, means and standard deviations were used for research questions while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression were employed to analyse the data collected through the tested hypotheses.

Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings

Table 1: Number of Questionnaire Retrieved from Selected Social Studies Teachers, School Library Media Specialists and JSS3 Students in Selected JSS in Ondo State.

S/N

Senatorial District

Questionnaire Distributed to teachers

Questionnaire retrieved

Questionnaire Distributed to SLMS

Ques. Retrieved

Questionnaire Distributed to JSS Students

Questionnaire Retrieved

1

Ondo North Senatorial District

25

24.75

19

22.62

16

29.63

14

31.81

359

28.49

310

29.92

2

Ondo Central Senatorial District

42

41.58

38

45.24

21

38.89

17

38.64

508

40.32

475

45.85

3

Ondo South Senatorial District

34

33.67

27

32.14

17

31.48

13

29.55

393

31.19

251

24.23

Total

101

84

100%

54

100%

44

100%

1,260

100%

1,036

100%

Table 1 shows that a total of one hundred and one (101) copies of questionnaire were administered to Junior Secondary School Social Studies Teachers in the selected public secondary schools in Ondo State. Only 84 (83.2%) were filled, returned and found useful. A total of 54 (81.5%) copies of questionnaire were also administered to the school library media specialists, filled, returned and found useful. One thousand, two hundred and sixty copies of questionnaire were administered to JSS III students, 1,036 copies were filled, returned and found useful. The response rate was also 82.2 %.

Profile of Respondents

This section presents demographic information of respondents such as gender, work experience and educational qualification.

Table 2: Gender Distribution of Respondents

Gender

Junior Secondary School Social Studies Teacher

School library media specialists

Junior Secondary School Students

Frequency

%

Frequency

%

Frequency

%

Male

49

58.3

20

45.5

630

60.8

Female

35

41.7

24

54.5

406

39.2

Total

84

100%

44

100%

1,036

100%

Table 2 indicates that 59.3% of the Junior Secondary School Social Studies teachers were males while 41.7% were females. Also 45.5% of the school library media specialists were males while 54.5% were females. It also reveals that 60.8% of the Junior Secondary School students were males while 39.2 % were females.

Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Educational Qualification

Qualification

J SS Social Studies Teachers

School library media specialists

Frequency

%

Frequency

%

WASC/ GCE./SSCE

NIL

NIL

25

56.8

NCE/OND/HND

NIL

NIL

19

43.2

Bachelor Degree

53

63.1

NIL

NIL

Masters Degree

31

36.9

NIL

NIL

Total

84

100

44

100

Table 3 reveals that 56.8% of the school library media specialists had O’level certificate while 43.2 % were Diploma holders. Also, 63.1% of the Junior Secondary School Social Studies teachers were Bachelor degree holders while 36.9 % were Master’s degree holders.

Table 4: Distribution of Respondents Based on Working Experience

Years of working experience

JSS Social Studies Teachers

Frequency %

School Library media Specialists

Frequency %

1-10

22

26.2

11

25

11-20

33

39.3

20

45.5

21 and above

29

34.5

13

29.6

Total

84

100%

44

100%

Table 4 shows that 26.2 % of the Junior Secondary School Social Studies teachers had worked for 1-10 years, 39.2 % for 11-20 years while 34.5 % had worked for 21 years and above. It reveals that 25% of the school media specialists had worked for between 1-10 years , 45.5 % for between 11-20 years while 29.6% had worked for 21 years and above.

Answers to Research Questions

Research question 1: What are the varieties of school library media resources available for Social Studies instructions in JSS in Ondo State. Tables 5, 6 and 7 discuss the findings.

Table 5: Availability of School Library Media Resources Based on Teachers’ Response

S/N

SLMC Resources

Not Available

Occasionally Available

Readily Available

Very Readily Available

SD

1

Map

1 (1.0)

-

9 (8.9)

91 (90.1)

3.64

4.64

2

Notice Board

5 (5.0)

-

12 (11.9)

84 (83.2)

3.32

1.09

3

Magazine

1(1.0)

8 (7.9)

14 (13.9)

78 (77.2)

3.25

0.83

4

Textbook

5 (5.0)

3 (3.0)

5(5.0)

88 (87.1)

3.25

1.15

5

Globe

4 (4.0)

2 (2.0)

17 (16.8)

78 (77.2)

3.22

1.04

6

Encyclopedia

2 (2.0)

7 (6.9)

15 (14.9)

77 (76.2)

3.21

0.86

7

Documentaries

2 (2.0)

5 (5.0)

75 (74.3)

19 (18.8)

3.11

0.81

8

Pictures

5 (5.0)

9 (8.9)

9 (8.9)

78 (77.2)

2.98

1.15

9

Fiction

6 (5.9)

10 (9.9)

11 (10.9)

74 (73.3)

2.95

1.03

10

Charts

9 (8.9)

9 (8.9)

15 (14.9)

68 (67.3)

2.95

1.30

11

Real objects

13 (12.9)

2 (2.0)

16 (15.8)

70(69.3)

2.79

1.17

12

Records

8 (7.9)

12 (11.9)

10 (9.9)

71 (70.3)

2.70

1.21

13

Realia

12 (11.9)

2 (2.0)

65 (64.4)

22(21.8)

2.69

1.23

14

Newspaper

3 (3.0)

2 (2.0)

13 (12.9)

83 (82.2)

2.63

0.56

15

Slides

8 (7.9)

13 (12.9)

25 (24.8)

55 (54.5)

2.38

1.16

16

CD player

90 (89.1)

6 (5.9)

4 (4.0)

1 (0.1)

1.91

0.94

17

CD

83 (82.2)

16 (15.8)

1 (0.1)

1 (0.1)

1.70

0.05

18

Video

68 (67.3)

12 (11.9)

12 (11.9)

9 (8.9)

1.55

0.76

19

Films

57 (56.4)

31 (30.7)

31 (30.7)

5 (5.0)

1.36

0.82

20

Slide Projector

48 (47.5)

43 (42.6)

43 (42.6)

4 (4.0)

1.28

0.73

Grand Mean

2.64

Table 5 shows that resources like maps ( = 3.64), noticeboards, ( = 3.32), magazines ( = 3.25), textbooks =3.25) and others that fall within the mean scores of 2.63 and 3.64 were adjudged to be available for instructions in Social Studies , while slides ( = 2.38), CD player ( = 1.91), CD player ( = 1.70),Video ( = 1.55), films ( = 1.36) and slide projectors were found to be the least available library media resources as indicated by teachers of Social Studies. This implies that not all the school library media resources were available for the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary schools in Ondo State and only map, noticeboard, magazines, textbook, encyclopedia, documentaries and pictures are available in the school library media centres for carrying out instructions in Social Studies .

Table 6: Availability of School Library Media Resources based on Students’ Responses

S/N

SLMC Resources

Not Available

Occasionally Available

Readily Available

Very Readily Available

SD

1

Textbook

83 (6.6)

42 (3.3)

193 (15.3)

942 (74.8)

3.58

0.84

2

Map

138 (11.0)

41 (3.3)

111 (8.8)

970 (77.0)

3.52

0.99

3

Encyclopedia

139 (11.0)

14 (1.1)

164 (13.0)

943 (74.8)

3.52

0.97

4

Magazine

15 (1.4)

56 (4.4)

67 (5.3)

984 (78.1)

3.49

1.03

5

Globe

124 (9.8)

97 (7.7)

83 (6.6)

956 (75.9)

3.48

1.00

6

Documentaries

126 (10.0)

98 (7.8)

95 (7.5)

941 (74.7)

3.47

1.00

7

Notice Boards

15 (1.4)

69 (5.5)

151 (12.0)

888 (70.5)

3.41

1.04

8

Pictures

13 (1.2)

82 (6.5)

179 (14.2)

861 (68.3)

3.40

0.01

9

Real Objects

11 (1.1)

96 (7.6)

245 (19.4)

808 (64.1)

3.39

0.96

10

Records

19 (1.7)

14 (1.1)

177 (14.0)

874 (3.37)

3.37

1.09

11

Charts

24 (1.9)

42 (3.3)

165 (13.1)

845 (3.31)

3.31

1.13

12

Fictions

27 (2.3)

112 (8.9)

122 (9.7)

789 (62.6)

3.16

1.20

13

Realia

20 (2.0)

56 (4.4)

218 (17.3)

737 (58.5)

3.15

1.18

14

Newspaper

90 (11.2)

12 (1.0)

140 (16.8)

209 (45.5)

1.67

0.83

15

Slide projectors

14 (1.2)

10 (1.0)

120 (11.8)

207 (43.2)

1.40

0.87

16

Slides

12 (1.1)

11 (1.0)

110 (12.1)

205 (41.2)

1.40

0.86

17

Video

11 (1.0)

13 (1.2)

65 (4.9)

150 (30.2)

1.05

0.66

18

Films

13 (1.6)

16 (1.9)

57 (6.5)

135 (28.2)

1.04

0.71

19

CD Player

13 (1.6)

14 (2.6)

37 (8.8)

80 (12.6)

1.20

0.67

20

CD

14 (1.1)

12 (1.3)

18 (1.7)

25 (2.9)

1.19

0.61

Grand Mean

2.68

Table 6 indicates availability of school library media resources as perceived by the Junior Secondary School students of Social Studies. Resources that were perceived as available and topping the list of available school library media resources were textbook ( = 3.58), map ( = 3.52), Encyclopedia, magazine ( 3.49) while resources like CD ( = 1.19) and CD player ( =1.20) were indicated as the least available school library media resources. Overall, resources like textbook, map, encyclopedia, magazine and globe were generally available while non-print resources like slide projectors, slide, video, CD player were least available in the school library media centre for instruction in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State.

Table 7 Availability of School Library Media Resources based on Media Specialists’ Responses

S/N

SLMC Resources

Not Available

Occasionally Available

Readily Available

Very Readily Available

SD

1

Realia

1 (1.9)

-( )

7 (13.0)

45 (83.3)

3.57

.69

2

Documentaries

2 (3.7)

4 (7.4)

6 (11.1)

42 (77.8)

3.50

.76

3

Textbook

2 (3.7)

5 (9.2)

5 (9.2)

42 (77.8)

3.50

1.13

4

Notice Board

4 (7.4)

2 (3.7)

7 (13.0)

41 (75.9)

3.48

.82

5

Pictures

3 (5.6)

7 913.0)

5 (9.3)

39 (72.2)

3.47

.84

6

Encyclopedia

4 (7.4)

8 (14.8)

3 (5.6)

39 (72.2)

3.42

.99

7

Chart

5 (9.2)

5 (9.2)

6 (11.1)

38 (70.3)

3.40

1.18

8

Map

10 (18.5)

5 (9.2)

4 (7.4)

35 (64.8)

3.11

1.117

9

Globe

8 (14.8)

6 (11.1)

3 (5.6)

37 (68.5)

3.09

1.22

10

Real Objects

5 (9.2)

10 (18.5)

7 (13.0)

32 (59.3)

3.06

1.98

11

Fiction

17 (31.5)

10 (18.5)

2 (3.7)

25 (46.3)

2.50

1.94

12

Records

12 (22.2)

16 (29.7)

1 (1.9)

26 (48.1)

2.50

1.31

13

Slide Projectors

25 (46.3)

4 (7.4)

8 (14.8)

17 (31.5)

1.90

.39

14

Magazines

20 (37.0)

9 (16.7)

9 (16.7)

16 (29.6)

1.90

.45

15

Slides

11 (20.4)

19 (35.2)

2 (3.7)

22 (40.7)

1.86

.89

16

Films

10 (18.5)

20 (37.0)

5 (9.2)

19 (35.2)

1.84

.82

17

Newspaper

1 (1.9)

30 (55.6)

3 (5.6)

20

1.55

.66

18

Video

12 (22.2)

22 (40.7)

5 (9.2)

15 (27.8)

1.53

.67

19

CD player

18 (33.3)

30 (55.6)

2 (3.7)

4 (7.4)

1.40

.41

20

CD

30 (55.6)

10 (18.5)

10 (18.5)

4 (7.4)

1.39

.61

Grand Mean

2.60

Table 7 indicates that resources like realia ( = 3.57), documentaries ( = 3.50), textbook ( =3.50) and noticeboard ranked highest on the list of available school media resources as perceived by the school library media specialists while resources like films ( =1.20) and CD ( = 1.12) were perceived to be the least available school library media resources. It can be deduced from the findings that school library media resources like textbooks, encyclopedias, maps and records were those available for the teaching and learning of Social Studies at Junior Secondary School level in Ondo State.

Hypothesis One: There is no significant relationship between school library media resources availability and students’ academic achievement in Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State. Table 8 presents the findings .


Table 8: Relationship between school library media resources availability and students’ academic achievement in social studies (students)

Variable

N

Mean

Std Dev.

R

r

Remark

Academic Achievement

49.76

4.80

1260

.87*

.000

sig

Availability of school library media resources

102.84

15.90

*Significant at .01 level

Table 8 indicates that there is a significant strong positive relationship between academic achievement and availability of school library media resources (r=.87*, df=1259, r< .01). Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected. This implies that availability of school library media resources has a great positive effect on students’ academic achievement in Social Studies .

Discussion of Findings

It is evident in the findings that certain media resources are available for the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State. The finding revealed that greater percentage of media resources that are provided for curriculum instructions in Social Studies are in print form. This finding supports that of Kolade (2001) who submitted that school media centres’ resources must be stocked with collection well organized comprising both book and non-book resources appropriate for carrying out curricula instructions in different subject areas. The finding also corroborates that of Todd and Carol (2010) who submitted that high quality good libraries not only help students read more, but also help them learn how to use and process information better and to perform better on achievement tests. Levels of library funding and collection size all have a direct impact on students’ achievement. Also, in a study conducted by Shannon (2012) and Lance (2013), it was discovered that sixty students in nearly two dozen states confirmed that a well- equipped school library contributes significantly to gains in students’ learning. The findings of George (2011) also revealed the necessity of availability of school library media resources when he submitted that school library, as custodian of information resources, is very important in shaping students’ habit towards learning desire to pass examination and obtain information on different aspects of life.

Findings also showed that many school library media centres are stocked more with print than non-print resources in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State. This may be due to the high cost and scarcity of non- print resources and the inability of secondary school management to provide requisite facilities for the maintenance of the resources for teaching Social Studies.

The study revealed that academic achievement of students is related to availability of the school library media resources. This study revealed that a larger percentage of students had higher scores in the achievement test in social studies. The data analysed also revealed that male students performed better than their female counterparts. The students indicated using the school library media centre for various reasons such as the need to do home assignment, to read, for examination and recreational purpose while their frequency of use ranges from daily, weekly, to monthly. The purpose and frequency of use must have contributed to higher scores recorded for a relatively high percentage of the students particularly for the males.

This finding corroborated that of Aina (2004) who admitted that availability of school media resources was responsible for improved academic performance of students in their chosen school subjects. Olaojo (2010) , realising the role of school library media resources in students’ learning outcome , explained that the school library media centre is vital to the success of any teaching- learning programme . The library , according to him is to facilitate implementation of educational policy goals through its available resources and to promote effective educational system .

Conclusion

It can be concluded, based on the finding of the study, that availability of varieties of school library media resources is a very important factor that determines the level of academic achievement of students in school subjects, particularly, Social Studies at the Junior Secondary School levels in Ondo State. The school library media resources are required not only by students but also teachers who can be regarded as the facilitators of interactive communication through which curriculum instructions in Social Studies are carried out.

It can also be concluded that provision of school library media resources will be inadequate for instructions in Social Studies if electronic or non-print forms of media resources are lacking from the list of available resources. The non-existence of school library media centres and requisite school library media resources may, debar desired academic achievement in Social Studies.

Another conclusion that can be drawn from the findings is that there is imbalance in the provision of school library media resources in the Junior Secondary School library media centres across the geopolitical zones of Ondo State. Students, irrespective of their locations, need uniform conducive and stimulating learning environment realizing the fact that they are being prepared for same examinations. It is observed that the provision of internet facilities in secondary schools is scarce and this deny students and teachers access to valuable resources for teaching Social Studies in Schools.

It is concluded that the manning of the school library media centres with non-experts who do not have the necessary professional skills to manage the library resources appropriately is not too good a development for education accomplishments of students, particularly, at the Junior Secondary School levels in Ondo State. Therefore, for School Library Media Centres to provide learning resources in support of instructions in schools, qualified school library media specialists will be needed to man the school library media centres

It is therefore submitted that establishment of functional school library media centres stocked with a relevant media resources and provision of training for the school media specialists are necessary conditions that may likely engender a motivating learning environment that encourages effective student-teacher relationship.

Recommendations

The following recommendations, based on the findings of the study, are hereby made:

  1. Government should encourage the establishment of standard school library media centres in all the secondary schools.
  2. Provision should be made for the acquisition of appropriate media resources that can help to meet students’ academic goals
  3. Government, in collaboration with the school management, should make fund available for procuring modern electronic resources to complement the conventional non print resources. Students, nowadays, derive maximum satisfaction from using electronic resources to carry out learning tasks and social interactions.
  4. School library media professionals and specialists should be employed to manage the school library media centres as their professional touch may likely affect acquisition and organisation of media resources. This may, on the long run, encourage the use of the resources by both students and teachers.
  5. The school library media specialists should, by collaborating with the school management, come up with library education programmes (orientations, exhibitions, library week, storytelling hour, debate and so on). This may have a far-reaching positive influence on the library use pattern for instructions in Social Studies.
  6. The teaching –learning process of subjects, particularly Social Studies, should revolve round the school library media resources. This is because learning is about reality and any student who interacts frequently with learning and instructional materials (school library media resources) is likely to perform better than his or her counterpart who is at a disadvantage. Therefore, teaching and of learning school subjects should be tasks based as this will encourage the students to utilize the available media resources.

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Abstract

The poor performance of Junior Secondary school students in Social Studies has been a source of concern for government and other stakeholders in education in Nigeria. This is occasioned partly by lack of relevant media resources needed for teaching and learning in Social Studies. This is why this study intended to investigate the extent of availability of school library media resources in the school library media centre and how that has contributed to students’ achievement in Social Studies in JSS in Ondo State. A questionnaire titled “School Library Media Resources Questionnaire” was used to gather information on availability of school library media resources and students’ achievement in Social Studies. A descriptive survey method was employed to analyse the results. The findings indicate that availability of school library media resources was above grand mean of 2.50 taken together for students, teachers and media specialists respectively (availability = 2.64) while there was a correlation between students media resources availability and students’ achievement in Social Studies (r=.87*,df=1259, p<.01). It was, therefore, concluded that school library media resources availability correlated significantly with students’ achievement in Social Studies. It was recommended that establishment of school media centre with relevant media resources be established by government to improve teaching and learning activities.

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