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Job satisfaction of employee is crucial in any organization, particularly in the public university libraries. However, the general opinion was that job satisfaction of librarians in public universities in South-West Nigeria has been on the decline. This is because there appears to be total neglect of librarians in the aspect of job security, recognition for a job well done, career development opportunities, conducive work environment, promotion and improved salary package. These occurrences may have contributed adversely to the level of job satisfaction of librarians. The study, therefore, investigated self-efficacy and job satisfaction of librarians in public universities in South-West Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study was 240 librarians working in public universities across South-West Nigeria. Total enumeration was used to include all librarians. The questionnaire was used for data collection and it was validated subject to scrutiny of experts in the areas of the studied variables. It gave reliability coefficients of 0.85 for Self-efficacy and 0.94 for Job satisfaction. The response rate was 78.8%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (Pearson Product Moment Correlation) statistics. The findings revealed that self-efficacy had a significant relationship with job satisfaction of librarians in public universities in South-West, Nigeria (r =.484, p < 0.05). The study recommends that for enhancement of job satisfaction, the library management and the university administration should collaborate and ensure appropriate policies on the issues of self-efficacy of librarians.