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Ezekwe,F.A & ENWEANI,U.V(2019) Gender Inequality in education,ICT, industry and employment: The socio-economic effects in Nigeria.



The researchers and media have drawn attention to the gender inequality in digital divide, education and employment opportunity which pervades the various physical, social and cognitive contexts. For the time past we have witnessed an endless discrimination against and widened socio-economic inequalities in the country with disastrous effect. In developing countries like Nigeria women often end up in poorly paid jobs without social protection. In the ICT and public sector, they fill the lower rung of job hierarchy. There is need for employment conditions and job quality to improve so that women can maximize their productivity. These circumstances confronting women have led the researchers to study the Nigerian population of women and men. In the documentary study of the population of 171million the researchers applied exploratory survey of records provided by authoritative national and international organizations. Statistical tables were drawn and studied using simple percentages. Comparative studies were undertaken in the areas of school enrollment and drop out syndrome, male/female number of successful candidates in NECO and WAEC examinations in various years, public appointments on gender basis. Other parameters used to highlight gender disparity include: admission into Nigerian Universalities by sex, gender and education statistics, gender and economic statistics and admission statistics into Nigerian Universities by sex. Analysis were comparatively done using the tables containing the raw data. The results were found to be in line with the 2012 Gender in Nigeria Report which indicated gender imbalance in different areas of social and economic endeavours, having worse life opportunities, mean chances for employment, rising income differentials and general inequality. It was also identified that inequality is solely founded upon institution of patriarchy. Consequent upon the circumstances women are highly under represented in job positions and girls often face school drop out syndrome. Inequality persisted in the face of numerous programmes designed to minimize the gender disparity. The resultant effects as identified are now exclusion of women in decision making position, limitation of women’s choices and options, lack of economic empowerment and lack of access to good employment opportunities. Based on the findings and the resultant effects the following recommendations are hereby made: That policy makers in education, ICT industry and employment agencies promote equality in their organisations, inform people about the need for gender equality, care for girl dropout victims, and provide access to free functional education, minimize biases against women in employment and activate constitutional provisions against gender inequality;

inclusion of study of ICT skills in tertiary institutions as well as installation of ICT facilities in various parts of Nigeria .