Some OIC countries have been growing rapidly in terms of international scientific publication.The purpose of this study was to determine the number of highly cited papers, the scholarly impact, H-index, Y-index, and the status of scientific collaboration among Islamic countries in medical fields. The research population included the highly cited papers in medical subject fields of all Islamic countries based on ESI. The Islamic world accounts for 1,338 (2.58%) of the world’s highly cited papers in medical fields, showing a rising trend from 2007–2017. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Iran rank first to third, respectively, in terms of the number of highly cited papers and the H-index. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan rank in the top three in terms of citation. Iran has published the largest number of papers by the first author and corresponding author, while Turkey and Saudi Arabia rank second and third, respectively. Collaboration among Islamic countries is low. Most of the highly cited papers from Islamic countries are a result of international collaboration with other countries. The impact of scientific papers from Islamic countries is very low. In order To increase the effectiveness of the papers, planning and policymaking in these countries should be reviewed.