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http://www.nielsen.com/id/en/press-room/2016/RADIO-MASIH-MEMILIKI-TEMPAT-DI-HATI-PENDENGARNYA.html (accessed on May 18, 2018, at 10.09 AM)
Even though the growth of radio networks in Indonesia has only reached number 15, these networks have branches in all major cities by transferring the ownership of local radios. Radio network is regulated but only in terms of quantity and share of ownership. Broadcast licenses are issued only for limited areas, but with the development of technology, broadcast coverage area becomes unlimited. The 2002 Indonesian Broadcasting Law No.32 manages the amount of local content percentage, and regulatory process and actions for violating local content regulations are difficult to do. The duality of regulatory authority between the Ministry of Communication and Informatics of the Republic of Indonesia and the Indonesian Broadcasting Commission causes the regulations to be very flexible, leaving gaps that tend to benefit radio owners and exclude public interests. This article investigates the extent of the implementation of the Indonesian Broadcasting Law on radio network in Indonesia. This study uses a critical paradigm to uncover the reality and criticism of the dominant system formed by a series of social, political, and economic factors. Mosco identifies the existence of relations between social agents and social practices in which structuration in the theory of political economy of the media means building relationships for the interests of the capitalists. This is reinforced by Antonio Gramsci’s concept of hegemony, stating that the authorities want to dominate profits. The discussion on networked radio in this article identifies that regulatory loopholes are used by established radio owner groups for opportunities to concentrate radio ownership nationally.