## Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln

## Abstract

**Abstract: **

The aim of this study is to identify important and effective factors on organizational commitment and providing optimal services to clients of Tabriz public library.

This research is an applicable research and date collection methods, is descriptive of correlation kind.

In this research, the statistic population contains all staff of Tabriz Library in 2013, *who are 115.*

## Comments

Introduction:One of the main goals of any organization is satisfying customers and clients by providing desirable quality services.

One of the main indicators to measure the effectiveness and developments in administrative is the public satisfaction from governmental services agencies. And factors such as speed, accuracy, and precision in doing the affair of clients, how to handle and treat with clients and inform them are the factors that lead to satisfaction.

Until recently, the issue of customer satisfaction in the country's administrative system has received less attention and often executive organizations have no feedback on providing services and collecting the views and actions of clients has no positions in the work process and in some cases an administrative systems willingly interpret laws and regulations and has made difficulties in servicing.

Research Background:In recent years, many studies have been conducted on organizational commitment, in each of the studies, organizational commitment has been considered as the dependent variable or independence variable. A review was conducted by Richars showed 11 commitment studies as the independent variable and over the 20 of them are considered as the dependent variable.

Until year 98, a review was performed by the researcher (Of course in journals have received to country), showing more attention to the category of organizational commitment, particularly from the second point of view of its dependence.

In another study Baron and Greenberg explained the factors affecting organizational commitment as:

1- The commitment affected by various aspects of the job: The jobs that assigned responsibility and authority, and its attractiveness are high while the repeatability is low; charger shows the high level of commitment from them. On the other hand, other low opportunities for promotion, high stresses in job and a lot of confusion in role caused formation of a low level of organizational commitment.

2- Organizational commitment will be influenced by the existence of alternative employment opportunities: More chances to find another jobs and greater favorable of such alternatives, makes the person have less commitment in his/her organization.

3- Organizational commitment will be influenced by personal characteristics:

Older, more experienced, more senior employees or self-employed and those who are interested to their jobs have shown a higher level of commitment. In the past, in comparing women with men it was often said that women has less committed to their organization.

Recent findings show that there aren't such disputes in organizational commitment but both groups showed the same commitment. The research that was conducted in 1991 by Matthew, precondition of organizational commitment and job satisfaction have been divided into four categories as follows:

1 - Characteristics of Jobs

2- The role of conditions: including issues such as role ambiguity, role conflict and workload of the role of individual.

3- Individual variables: include two variables of motivation to succeed and experience position.

4-Collection effectiveness: contains two standard performance variables and coherence.

Research methods:This research, according to objective-based applications and data gathering methods is descriptive of correlation, the results of this performance lead to improvement the function of Tabriz public libraries and for this reason it is applicable, and the studying of current state of productivity is intended and because of this it is descriptive. The research is the kind of correlation because the researcher is seeking the relationship between two variables.

Statistical Society:The statistic population of this research is all staffs of Tabriz libraries in 92 and totally is 115 people.

The sample size:The sample size was determined by using Morgan table. For the 115 people, according to Morgan table, required samples are 89 people.

Sampling methods:Sampling will be carried out by simple random from each library.

Data collection tools:Both of library and field methods are used for Data collection.

Library method is used to preparation the theoretical background of the research and Field method with using the questionnaires is used to data collecting.

Data collection and required information from questionnaire was used to measure research Indicators. Questions with regard to the research objectives and the subject matter of present study are designed in the format of five choices with ending and the levels to measure ratings.

Two following questionnaires will be used to measure the two main variables in this study.

1- John Wagner's standard questionnaire was used to measure providing service.

2 - Allen and Meyer's standard questionnaire was used to measure of organizational commitment.

Methods of data analysis:Nominal and ordinal variables of research will be described by using the frequency distribution of tables and also related charts and numeric variables will be described by using the central indicators, dispersion of mean, standard deviation and associated diagrams. To test hypotheses of research, first the data normality was studied by using Kolmogorov – Smirnov test. Independent t-test, one-sample t-test and Pearson correlation were used after confirmation of normal data. Equivalent abnormal tests were used in the case of non- parametric.

Research findings:In this section, the collected data will be analyzed. The analysis is presented in two parts: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Gender:Gender variable frequency table is given below. Frequency, percentage, and accepted percentage and cumulative percentage is calculated for each option. Gender column chart is drawn according to percent. 53/9 percent are women and 46/1 percent are men.

Marital Status:Marital status of variable frequency table is given below. Frequency, percentage, accepted percentage and cumulative percentage is calculated for each option. Marital Status column chart is drawn according to percent. 39/3 percent are single and 60/7 percent are married.

Experience:The amount of variable frequency table is given below. Frequency, percentage, accepted percentage and cumulative percentage is calculated for each option. Experience column chart is drawn according to percent. Rate of experience is 29/2 percent in 5 years and less, 23/6 percent 6-10 years, 23/6 percent in 11-15 years and 14/6 percent in 16-20 years.

Age:For the age variable, number of samples, mean, median, standard deviation, variance, minimum and maximum are calculated and the histogram is drawn. Average amount is 33/82, the lowest amount is 23 and the maximum amount is of 42.

Organizational commitment:For the organizational commitment variable, number of samples, mean, median, standard deviation, variance, minimum and maximum are calculated and the histogram is drawn. Scores are in the range from 1 to 5. Average amount is 3/28, the lowest amount is 2/33 and the maximum amount is of 4/40.

Rate of providing services to clients:For the providing optimal services to clients variable, number of samples, mean, median, standard deviation, variance, minimum and maximum are calculated and the histogram is drawn. Scores are in the range from 1 to 5. Average is 3/12, the lowest amount is 2/08, and the maximum amount is 4/15.

Examining the normality of distribution of variables scores:Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to examining the normality of distribution the scores of variables. In this Test, the null hypothesis is the normality of distribution variable. If significance (meaningful) level of test is less than 0/05, the null hypothesis is rejected and we conclude that the distribution variable is not normal.

Due to the significant levels of providing optimal services and organizational commitment, we conclude that the variables are distributed normally (significance level is greater than 0/05).

Hypothesis 1: There are relationships between providing services and organizational commitment of Tabriz librarians.The Pearson correlation test was used to test this hypothesis. The null hypothesis in this test zero correlation coefficient (no relation). The null hypothesis will be rejected, If the test significance level (sig.) is less than 0/05. In this case there will be relationships between the variables.

Pearson correlation coefficient is 0/543and significance level of the test 0/000. It is considered that the significant level of Pearson test is less than 0/05, for this reason the Hypothesis of independent variables will be rejected. There are significant relationships between providing optimal services and organizational commitment in Tabriz librarians.

Hypothesis 2: Organizational commitment of Tabriz librarians are above average.One sample t-test was used, to test this hypothesis. The test is scored from 1 to 5, So we considered 3 as amount of the test which is average variable. If the average variables are more than 3, it indicates the desired position.

Null hypothesis = the level of organizational commitment is equal average level (3).

Inverse hypothesis = the level of organizational commitment isn't equal average level (3).

The variable average of organizational commitment is 3/28 and a significance level of test is 0/000. It is considered that the significant level is less than 0/05, for this reason the null Hypothesis will be rejected. The other hand, the average is more than 3, it follows that organizational commitment of Tabriz librarians is significantly higher than average.

Hypothesis 3: Providing services among the Tabriz librarians is above average.One sample T-test was used to test this hypothesis. The test is scored from 1 to 5, So we considered 3 as amount of the test which is average variable. If the average variables are more than 3, it indicates the desired position.

Null hypothesis = the level of providing optimal services is equal average level (3).

Inverse hypothesis = the level of providing optimal services isn't equal average level (3).

The variable average of Providing optimal services is 3/12 and a significance level of test is 0/023. It is considered that the significant level is less than 0/05, for this reason the null Hypothesis will be rejected. The other hand, the average is more than 3, it follows that the providing optimal services of Tabriz librarians is significantly higher than average.

Hypothesis 4: There are relationship between organizational commitment and gender among Tabriz librarians.We used the independent t-test to test this hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the mean of organizational commitment among men and women. The null hypothesis will be rejected, If the test significance level (sig.) is less than 0/05.

Average organizational commitment in women 3/36 and in men 3/19 and a significance level is 0/092. It is considered that the significant level of T-test is more than 0/05, for this reason the null Hypothesis will not be rejected. As a result, there are no significant differences in organizational commitment between male and female librarians.

Hypothesis 5: There are relationships between gender and providing the services in Tabriz librarians.We used the T-test, to test this hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the mean of providing optimal services among men and women. The null hypothesis will be rejected, if the test significance level (sig.) is less than 0/05.

Average of providing optimal services in women is 3/15 and in men is 3/07 and a significance level is 0/437. It is considered that the significant level of T-test is more than 0/05, for this reason the null Hypothesis will not be rejected. As a result, there are no significant differences in providing optimal services between male and female librarians.

Hypothesis 6: There are relationship between organizational commitment and marital status in Tabriz librarians.We used the independent T-test to test this hypothesis; the null hypothesis is the mean of organizational commitment among married or single librarians. The null hypothesis will be rejected, If the test significance level (sig.) is less than 0/05.

Average of organizational commitment in single is 3/28 and in married is 3/29 and a significance level is 0/908. It is considered that the significant level of T-test is more than 0/05, for this reason the null Hypothesis will not be rejected. As a result, there are no significant differences between single and married in organizational commitment of librarians.

Hypothesis 7: There are relationships between providing services among Tabriz librarians and their marital status.We used the T-test to test this hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the mean of providing optimal services among married or single librarians. The null hypothesis will be rejected, If the test significance level (sig.) is less than 0/05.

Average of providing optimal services in single is 3/28 and in married is 3/29 and a significance level is 0/908. It is considered that the significant level of T-test is more than 0/05, for this reason the null Hypothesis will not be rejected. As a result, there are no significant differences in providing the optimal services among married or single librarian.

Conclusions:The aim of the present study was to examining the relationships between organizational commitment and productivity of Tabriz librarians. Collected data from a sample of 89 individuals (people) using version 18 of Spss software was used for the analysis that a summary of the results is presented as following.

53/9 percent are women and 46/1 percent are men.

39/3 percent are single and 46/1 percent are married.

Rate of experience is 29/2 percent in 5 years and less, 23/6 percent 6-10 years, 23/6 percent in 11-15 years and 14/6 percent in 16-20 years.

Mean age is 33/82 years, minimum 23 and maximum 42 years.

Average organizational commitment is 3/28, the lowest amount is 2/33 and the maximum amount is 4/40.

Average providing optimal service is 3/12, the lowest amount is 2/08 and the maximum amount is 4/15.