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Purpose: This paper is a survey on the basis for libraries participation in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities in south east and south-south Nigeria. This paper seeks to unravel the reasons why libraries should engage in CSR activities. Design/ methodology/approach: The study adopted survey research method with questionnaire designed using four-point likert rating scale for data collection. Population of study comprise of librarians working in the university libraries selected from the south-east and south-south geo-political zone of Nigeria; a total of 129 questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: It was revealed that participating in community development, promotion of citizens welfare, disseminating information on employment opportunities to unemployed graduates, ensuring timely, regular and relevant information services-provision to members of the host community, supporting educational related activities such as scholarships and intern opportunities, and partnering with stakeholders to enhance educational consciousness of the citizenry among others are CSR activities that libraries can engage for sustainable development. Opportunities open to libraries from participating in CSR include change in public perception of libraries, establishment of mutual understating between the library and the community with librarians strengthening their value chain among others. Possible challenges to effective participation of libraries in CSR activities revealed include inadequate finding of libraries stakeholders’ divergent ideology on CSR lack of commitment towards CSR activities etc. Practical implications: There is an urgent need for librarians to embrace the philosophy of CSR and explore it as a means of remaining relevant to the society and their immediate environment. Also, there is need to include corporate social responsibility and corporate librarianship into the curriculum of marketing in library schools. Originality/value: This paper is of value to heads of libraries and stakeholders in information services and those interested in innovative library practice.