Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln


Date of this Version

Spring 3-1-2021

Document Type



Cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, heart failure, heart attacks and other related risk factors are on the rise in Pakistan. This heart disease is generating a high burden of coronary artery disease on healthcare services and becoming a leading cause of death in developing countries like Pakistan. Health information is an integral part of patient education and ultimately for patient care. Thus, understanding the information needs of heart patients are seriously important and essential in ensuring quality care, controlling heart diseases and improving the self-care abilities of heart patients alongside the advanced medication and treatment strategies. This integrative review intends to outline information needs of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and related symptoms such as heart failure (HF), and heart attack (HA). The present integrative review has used the methodology of (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005) to analyze the existing literature on information needs of MI patients. This integrative review includes qualitative, quantitative, and peer-reviewed research articles that have been published from 2001 to 2020 in the databases of Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science. Those studies are included to summarize and understand the information needs of MI patients from multiple perspectives that have addressed the objectives of this paper. Out of 15 published articles, 9 used quantitative research design and 6 used exploratory qualitative research approach. Out of 9 quantitative studies, four adopted HFLNI scale, three adopted CPLNI scale, and rest of three developed/adapted a new scale. Out of six qualitative studies, four used interview methods and two used focus group technique to collect data from MI patients. The top most information needs were identified related to “signs and symptoms management; medication, physical activities, risk factors, diet, psychological factors and treatment and hospitalization”. The less important information needs were including “anatomy and physiology; postoperative complications; discharge instructions; disease management strategy; emergency care; lifestyle factors; community support; and counseling about sexual activity”. The study also found unmet information needs due to disparity in the provision of information to MI patients. This review has identified several similarities in information needs of MI patients across studies. The findings of this review may be helpful for heart specialists, cardiologists, healthcare professionals, heart care organizations, and researchers to assess and provide the preferred information to MI patients for disease control and high-quality cardiac care.