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This paper focused on the challenges to full implementation of open distance and flexible learning in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The conceptual clarification of distance education, open distance learning was presented; the justifications for ODFL programmes in developing countries were highlighted. The expected role of libraries towards the sustainability of ODFL programmes include provision of technology-based information services, organization and provision of online information resources, provision of digital information literacy; the challenges to implementation of ODFL programmes in tertiary institutions in developing countries such as dearth of well-defined national distance education policies, dearth of trained cadre of professionals to support the implementation of distance education; technological constraints, dearth of collaborative partners, low level of funding in Nigerian institution and erratic power supply were well articulated. Strategies like adequate funding, recruitment of quality staff, engaging in sustainable collaborative effort, re-training of librarians and compliance with quality assurance principles.