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The study investigated the utilization of open source software in university libraries in the South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria using descriptive survey research design. Five research questions were answered. The population of the study is 1,716 comprising all library staff in the university libraries in South-south Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two hundred and three (203) library staff from the three universities in south-south Nigeria that are presently making use of OSS in the university libraries. The sole instrument of data collection is the questionnaire. Out of the 203 copies administered to the respondents, 195 copies were duly filled and retrieved representing 96.1% rate of return. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. Based on the data collected and analyzed, the study found that the level of use of the administrative, cataloguing and circulation modules of OSS by staff in university libraries in the South-South Nigeria is relatively high. The findings of the study equally identified 12 factors militating against the use of OSS in university libraries and 10 strategies for enhancing the use of OSS in university libraries in south-south Nigeria. Based on these findings, the study among others recommended enlightenment and sensitization of university staff on the benefits and usage of OSS in the institution, that the government and the managements of the universities concerned should ensure effective connectivity to the network for efficient research information and resource transfer and efficiency in the use of OSS and that there should be adequate provision for ICT facilities for use towards to ensure effective implementation and utilization of OSS for sustainable resource use among universities in Nigeria.