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In recent decades, social media has moved from a fringe activity to one that is considered as central for library outreach and promotion. This study aims to explore the current state of using social media and factors affecting the use, then to suggest solutions to improve social media use in Vietnamese academic libraries. In the present study, a mix research methodology was used to achieve the research objectives. The results showed that social media is a marketing communication tool for academic libraries to transmit news, announcements and events. Social media also helps them introduce library resources to users, and implement information literacy programs. However, the management of libraries’ social media platforms is received limited attention. The lack of interesting and attractive content, non-variety in social media usage, lack of social media policy, human resources and social media skills are major challenges. Based on research results and actual conditions of the studied libraries, recommendations are made in order to assist libraries to ensure effective use of social media, including optimizing libraries’ Facebook pages, using multiple platforms, popularizing library social media pages, creating a social media content management strategy and social media policy. In addition, librarians responsible for contributing to library social media accounts need thorough training. Besides, libraries need to conduct surveys to better understand the needs and expectations of users, thereby diversifying library presence on social media accordingly.