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This study analyses the research output of four South Asia countries, namely Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal in S&T during 2001-10 on several parameters including its growth and country publications share in the world’s research output, country publications share in various subjects in the national and global context, geographical distribution of publications, share of international collaborative publications at the national level as well as across subjects and characteristics of high productivity institutions and cited papers. The Scopus Citation Database has been used to retrieve the publication data for 10 years. Concludes that all the four South Asian countries needs to increase their output and bring about improvement in the quality of its research efforts. This can be done by investing much more in R&D expenditure, increase in the deployment of more qualified manpower and in increasing international collaboration and by modernizing and strengthening its research infrastructure.