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So Long as Grass Shall Grow and Water Run: The Treaties Formed By the Confederate States of America and the Tribes in Indian Territory, 1861

Date of this Version



Published online September 21, 2010, by University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Center for Digital Research in the Humanities. Copyright 2010 Charles D. Bernholz, Laura K. Weakly, Brian L. Pytlik Zillig, and Karin Dalziel.


The Confederate States of America created nine treaties with the tribes in Indian Territory in July, August, and October of 1861. The original documents no longer exist and the generally accepted source for these transactions today is The Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America. These little known instruments reveal a series of provisions that reached far beyond those offered by the federal government in earlier treaties or in the stipulations found in an array of new punitive treaties enacted by the United States following the Civil War.